Reports, Research, & Publications Index

This page serves as an index of publications that detail hard data on environmental crimes, wildlife trafficking, and ties that businesses and governments have to illegal industries and even organized crime. This index may best help researchers in quickly and easily identifying primary sources, original research, and other significant sources of information. But many of the publications are very accessible and anyone interested in learning more about these topics would benefit from reading these publications.

This list, which is updated regularly, is sorted in chronological order from most-recent to oldest. Dates of publication append the file names for ease of sorting. Please be advised that some publications may contain graphic or disturbing images.

Index

Publication Sources
Forestry, Logging & Timber
Wildlife Conservation & Illegal Trade
Ocean Reefs, Fishing, & Cetaceans
Corruption & Organized Crime
Wildlife Trade Detection & Enforcement
Wildlife Behavior & Phenomena


Publication Sources
The publications listed on this page have been published or co-authored by the groups, or members of the groups, listed below. Please consider supporting these groups so that they can continue to maintain free, publicly accessible digital copies of their reports online and continue to produce publications in the future.

AA – Animals Asia
ANGONET – Arusha Non-Governmental Organization Network
ASEAN-WEN – Association of Southeast Asian Nations’ Wildlife Enforcement Network
AsESG – Asian Elephant Specialist Group, part of the IUCN
AsRSG – Asian Rhino Specialist Group, part of the IUCN
BF – Born Free
CERU – Conservation Ecology Research Unit (University of Pretoria)
CI – Conservation International
CIFOR – Center for International Forestry Research
CITES – Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
EAW – East African Wild Life Society
EIA – Environmental Investigation Agency
EV – Publications authored by members of Elephant Voices (Hosted publications)
FTB – Free The Bears
FWS – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
GTI – Global Tiger Initiative (More publications)
IFAW – International Fund for Animal Welfare
IUCN – International Union for Conservation of Nature (Mammal publications)
KEF – Kenya Elephant Forum
KWS – Kenya Wildlife Service (More downloads)
LATF – Lusaka Agreement Task Force
Panthera – Panthera, Inc.
RSC – Royal Society of Chemistry
SANParks – South African National Parks
SRI – Save the Rhino International
TRAFFIC – Trade Records Analysis on Flora and Fauna in Commerce. (Species Reports, Bulletins, and Publications)
TAWIRI – Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute
UNEP – United Nations Environmental Programme
WA – WildAid
WCS – Wildlife Conservation Society
WD – Wildlife Direct
WPSI – Wildlife Protection Society of India
WWF – World Wildlife Fund


Publications on Forestry, Logging, & Timber Trafficking

Some publications have English versions as well as a version translated into another language. Translated versions are listed after the applicable English version for ease of access.

[EIA] Repeat Offender: Vietnam’s persistent trade in illegal timber (April, 2017) – Additional resources and evidence.

[EIA] ជនបន្តល្មើសដដែលៗ: ការរកស៊ីឈើខុសច្បាប់រ៉ាំរ៉ៃនៅក្នុង ប្រទេសវៀតណាម (April, 2017)

[EIA] TỘI PHẠM TÁI PHẠM: Hoạt động kinh doanh gỗ bất hợp pháp dai dẳng của Việt Nam (April, 2017)

[EIA] Cycles of Destruction: Unsustainability, Illegality and Violence in the Hongmu Trade (September, 2016)

[EIA] Red Alert: How fraudulent Siamese rosewood exports from Laos and Cambodia are undermining CITES protection (June, 2016)

[EIA] Built on Lies: New Homes in Japan Destroy Old Forests in Europe (June, 2016)

[EIA] Missing the Forest for the Carbon? EIA Analysis of the FCPF Carbon Fund (June, 2016)

[EIA] Avoiding Illegal timber in China: Due Diligence Recommendations (April, 2016)

[EIA/IFMN/JPIK] Loopholes in Legality: How a Ministry of Trade Decree Benefits Shadowy Timber Exporters & Undermines legal Reforms (March, 2016)

[EIA/IFMN/JPIK] Celah Dalam Legalitas: Bagaimana Keputusan Menteri Perdagangan Dimanfaatkan Oleh Eksportir Kayu Dan Melemahkan Reformasi Hukum (March, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] China’s Market Potential for Sustainably Sourced Wild Plants (Feb, 2016)

[EIA] Organised Chaos: The illicit overland timber trade between Myanmar and China – Also available in Burmese. (September, 2015)

[EIA] 乱中有序: 中缅陆路非法木材贸易 (September, 2015)

[CI/WWF] Sustainable Sourcing Guide for Palm Oil Users (May, 2015)

[WWF] Living Forests Report Chapter 5: Saving Forests at Risk – A report identifying projected at-risk regions accounting for a large percentage of deforestation expected from 2010-2030. (April, 2015)

[EIA] Deforestation by Definition – A report on the deforestation continuing in the Peruvian Amazon caused by palm oil and other plantations. (April, 2015)

[EIA] Deforestación Ilegal en la Amazonía Peruana plantaciones de Palma Aceitera (April, 2015)

[EIA] Briefing for the Regional Dialogue on Siamese Rosewood and Illegal Logging (December, 2014)

[EIA] Permitting Crime: How palm oil expansion drives illegal logging in Indonesia (December, 2014)

[WWF] A rapid assessment of the illegal timber trade across the Ruvuma river on the Tanzania and Mozambique border (December, 2014)

[EIA] EIA response to China’s draft timber guidelines (August, 2014)

[EIA] First Class Crisis: China’s Criminal and Unsustainable Intervention in Mozambique’s Miombo Forests (July, 2014)

[EIA] Myanmar’s Rosewood Crisis (July, 2014)

[EIA] Routes of Extinction: The corruption and violence destroying Siamese rosewood in the Mekong (May, 2014)

[WWF] The Heart of Borneo Environmental Status Report (May, 2014)

[CIFOR] Oil palm estate development and its impact on forests and communities in West Papua (April, 2014)

[EIA] Lumber Liquidators importing illegal hardwood flooring – Illegal logging in Russia’s far east which threatens tiger populations. (October, 2013)

[EIA/TRAFFIC/WWF] Wildlife and Forest Crime: CCPCJ 22 – A joint briefing on the 22nd Session of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ). (April, 2013)

[EIA] EIA Comments on the 6th Draft of the Vietnamese Timber and Timber Product Legality Definition (February, 2013)

[EIA] First Class Connections: Log Smuggling, Illegal Logging and Corruption in Mozambique (February, 2013)

[EIA] Checkpoints – A report on the forest management in Laos being undermined by interest groups. (September, 2012)

[UNEP/INTERPOL] Green Carbon, Black Trade: Illegal Logging, Tax Fraud and Laundering in the World’s Tropical Forests (September, 2012)

[EIA] Clear-Cut Exploitation – West Papua deforestation and the investors that profit from it. (May, 2012)

[EIA] Rosewood Robbery – Briefing on unsustainable and illegal logging of Thailand’s rosewood. (February, 2012)

[EIA] ภาษาไทย – Briefing on unsustainable and illegal logging of Thailand’s rosewood. (February, 2012)

[EIA] Hard Evidence of Continued Import of Illegal Timber from Malaysia to Japan (December, 2011)

[EIA] 日本がマレーシアから違法木材を継続的に輸入していることについて (日本語) (December, 2011)

[EIA] Crossroads – The illegal trade of lumber between Vietnam and Laos. (July, 2011)

[EIA] TRÊN NHỮNG GIAO LỘ Buôn Bán Gỗ Bất Hợp Pháp Giữa Lào và Việt Nam (July, 2011)

[EIA] ການຄ້າໄມ້ເຖື່ອນ ລະຫວ່າງລາວແລະຫວຽດນາມ (July, 2011)

[EIA] Caught REDD Handed – Norway’s relationship with the Indonesian moratorium on logging. (June, 2011)

[EIA] Rogue Traders – Exposé of some of Indonesia’s key players in the illegal lumber trade. (August, 2010)

[EIA] Bisnis Hitam – Penyelundupan Kayu Merbau Di Indonesia. (August, 2010)

[EIA] Up For Grabs: Deforestation And Exploitation In Papua’s Plantations Boom (December, 2009)

[EIA] Putting The Brakes on the Drivers of Forest Destruction (November, 2009)

[EIA] Due Negligence: The Case for Stronger EU Legislation on Illegal Timber (May, 2009)

[EIA] Receiving Stolen Goods: Why the UK Must Legislate Against Trade in Illegal Timber (July, 2007)

[EIA] The Thousand-Headed Snake – Report on corruption within Indonesia’s judicial system which fails to prosecute illegal logging. (March, 2007)

[EIA] Illegal and Unsustainable Trade in Ramin – Briefing on the trade of Ramin hardwood which grows in Indonesia and Malaysia. (October, 2006)

[EIA] America’s Free Trade for Illegal Timber (June, 2006)

[EIA] Behind The Veneer – Report on the Indonesian origins of some wood flooring. (March, 2006)

[EIA] Stemming the Tide – Ideas on how to stop the East- and Southeast Asian illegal logging trade. (November, 2005)

[EIA] The Illegal Logging Crisis in Honduras – American and European imports of wood from Honduras impacts the environment and local communities. (November, 2005)

[EIA] The Last Frontier – Report on illegal timber being smuggled from Indonesia to China. (February, 2005)

[EIA] The Ramin Racket – Report on CITES’ role in combating the illegal lumber trade. (September, 2004)

[EIA] Profiting from Plunder – Report on illegal logging in Indonesia supplying Malaysia. (February, 2004)

[EIA] Timber Trafficking – Illegal logging in Southeast Asia. (September, 2001)

[EIA] The Politics of Extinction – Report on threats posed by legal and illegal logging to orangutan populations. (July, 1998)


Publications on Wildlife Conservation, Trafficking, & Trade

For an extensive listing of reports published by TRAFFIC please see their pages on Species Reports, Bulletins, and other Publications by topic. Pachyderm Journal also has a great archive of reports, as does Global Tiger Initiative and the IUCN. The most recent Kenya Elephant Forum fact sheets (2013) are available from ElephantVoices.

Most publications are in English but some have versions translated into another language. These translated versions are listed directly after the applicable English version for ease of access. Dates shown relate to the time of publication.

[TRAFFIC] The U.S. Elephant Ivory Market: A New Baseline (July, 2017) – Article and summary.

[EAL] Grinding Rhino: An Undercover Investigation on Rhino Horn Trafficking in China and Vietnam (July, 2017) – and the companion guide.

[FTB/AA] The Status & Distribution of Bears in Vietnam 2016 (April, 2017)

[FTB/AA] Thực trạng & Sự phân bố của loài Gấu ở Việt Nam 2016 (April, 2017)

[STE] Decline in Legal Ivory Trade in China (March, 2017)

[STE] Beehive fences as a multidimensional conflict-mitigation tool for farmers coexisting with elephants (Feb, 2017)

[SRI] Rhino Rage: What is driving illegal consumer demand for rhino horn? (Dec, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Going Dutch: An Analysis of the Import of Live animals from Indonesia by the Netherlands (November, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] An assessment of trade in bear bile and gall bladder in Viet Nam (November, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Reduced To Skin And Bones Re-Examined: Full Analysis – Updated with information through 2015. (November, 2016)

[EIA] Time for Action: End the criminality and corruption fuelling wildlife crime (November, 2016)

[EIA] Time for Action: End the criminality and corruption fuelling wildlife crime – Country Profiles (November, 2016)

[CITES] Report on the Elephant Trade Information System (ETIS) (October, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] An Ounce of Prevention: Snow leopard crime revisited (October, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] A Rapid Assessment of US Ivory Markets (October, 2016)

[EIA] The Dirty Secrets of Japan’s Illegal Ivory Trade (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] In Transition: Bangkok’s ivory market (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Reduced to Skin and Bones Re-examined (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Observations of the illegal pangolin trade in Lao PDR (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Observations of the Helmeted Hornbill trade in Lao PDR (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] An overview of pangolin trade in China (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Malaysia’s invisible ivory channel: An assessment of ivory seizures involving Malaysia from January 2003-May 2014 (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] A rapid survey of UK ivory markets (August, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Indonesia’s Bird Markets: In the market for extinction: eastern and central Java (August, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Menjual Kepunahan – Perdagangan Burung di Jawa Timur dan Jawa Bagian Tengah (August, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Illegal Otter Trade: An Analysis of Seizures in Selected Asian Countries (1980-2015) (July, 2016)

[UNEP] The Rise of Environmental Crime: A UNEP-INTERPOL Rapid Response Assessment – Alternate link. (June, 2016)

[GTI] Background Document – Global Wild Tiger Population Status (April, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Setting Suns: the Historical Decline of Ivory and Rhino Horn Markets in Japan (April, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Humphead (Napoleon) Wrasse Cheilinus undulatus trade into and through Hong Kong (March, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Beyond Enforcement: Involving Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities in Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade (February, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Au-delà de l’application de la loi: Inclusion des peuples autochtones et des communautés locales dans la lutte contre le commerce illégal d’espèces sauvages (February, 2016)

[EIA] Ending Trade in Tiger Parts and Products (January, 2016)

[EIA] Dual Extinction: The illegal trade in the endangered totoaba and its impact on the critically endangered vaquita (January, 2016)

[EIA] 双重灭绝: 濒危加利福尼亚湾石首鱼的非法贸易及其对极度濒危小头鼠海豚的影响 (January, 2016)

[NTNC] National Trust for Nature Conservation Regulation 2041 (Nepali version) (December, 2015)

[EAL] Blending Ivory: China’s Old Loopholes, New Hopes – Summary in English (December, 2015)

[EU/EC] Illegal Wildlife Trade: Strengthening cooperation with business sectors against illegal trade in wildlife (November, 2015)

[WWF] Fragile Connections: Snow leopards, people, water and the global climate (October, 2015)

[WWF] Will Current Conservation Responses Save the Critically Endangered Sumatran Rhinoceros? (September, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] In the Market for Extinction: An inventory of Jakarta’s bird markets – Summary in Indonesian. (September, 2015)

[WWF] The Hard Truth: How Hong Kong’s Ivory Trade is Fueling Africa’s Elephant Poaching Crisis (September, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Bones of Contention: An assessment of the South African trade in African Lion bones and other body parts (July, 2015)

[EAL] Pushing Ivory Out of Africa – A Case Study (July, 2015)

[EU] EU Action Plan Against Wildlife Trafficking (July, 2015)

[NTNC] Vulture Conservation Action Plan for Nepal (2015-2019) (June, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] A Review of Online Ivory Trade in Japan (June, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Hard to Bear: An assessment of trade in bear bile and gall bladder in Malaysia (May, 2015)

[EAL] Mombasa Report: A Liability for Africa – On the trafficking of ivory through Kenya’s port. (May, 2015)

[LATF] Operation Cobra II Evaluation Form (April, 2015)

[UNEP] Organized Crime in Wildlife, Gold and Timber, Worth Over One Billion USD, Further Fuels Conflict in Eastern DR Congo (April, 2015)

[EAL] Africa’s White Gold of Jihad: al-Shabaab and Conflict Ivory (April, 2015)

[Small Arms Survey] In the Line of Fire – Elephant and Rhino Poaching in Africa (April, 2015)

[EIA] High Profit/Low Risk: Reversing the wildlife crime equation (March, 2015)

[EIA] Sin City: Illegal wildlife trade in Laos’ special Economic Zone (March, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Breaking the Ice: International trade in Narwhals, in the context of a changing Arctic (March, 2015)

[ANGONET] State of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Wildlife Sector: A case study of villages within and neighbouring wildlife protected areas in northern Tanzania (March, 2015)

[WA] Ivory Demand in China 2012-2014 (March, 2015)

[WA] Rhino Horn Demand in China 2012-2014 (March, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Moving targets: Tracking online sales of illegal wildlife products in China (March, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Breaking the Ice: International Trade in Narwhals in Contex of Changing Arctic (2015)

[RSC] Veterinary agents and poisons threaten avian scavengers in African and Europe (November, 2014)

[IFAW] Wanted: Dead or Alive – Exposing the Online Wildlife Trade (November, 2014)

[EIA] Vanishing Point – Criminality, Corruption and the Devastation of Tanzania’s Elephants (November, 2014)

[BF] Out of Africa: Mapping the Global Trade in Illicit Elephant Ivory (October, 2014)

[IFAW] Bidding Against Survival – The Elephant Poaching Crisis and the Role of Auctions in the U.S. Ivory Market (August, 2014)

[TRAFFIC] Brought to Bear: An Analysis of Seizures Across Asia (2000-2011). (August, 2014)

[KWS] Aerial Total Count of Elephants and Buffaloes in the Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem (August, 2014)

[EIA] Caged Assets: Tiger Farming and Trade (July, 2014)

[CITES] Elephant Conservation, Illegal Killing and Ivory Trade (July, 2014)

[EAW] Lifting the Siege: Securing Kenya’s Wildlife (June, 2014)

[IFAW] Click to delete – Endangered wildlife for sale in New Zealand (May, 2014)

[IFAW] Click to delete – Australian websites selling endangered wildlife (May, 2014)

[IFAW] A case for stepping up CITES enforcement in the EU (April, 2014)

[BF] Ivory’s Curse: The Militarization & Professionalization of Poaching in Africa (April, 2014)

[IFAW] U.S. Ivory Trade: Can a crackdown on trafficking save the last titan? (March, 2014)

[CITES] Operation Cobra II (February, 2014)

[EIA] In Cold Blood – Combating organised wildlife crime – Examines international wildlife crimes and actions taken to stem them. (February, 2014)

[EIA] Briefing on the manufacture of tiger bone wine in China (January, 2014)

[IFAW] Horn of Contention: A review of literature on the economics of trade in rhino horn (January, 2014)

[TRAFFIC] Brought to Bear: An Analysis of Seizures Across Asia (2000-2011) (2014)

[TRAFFIC] Hauling Out: International Trade and Management of Walrus (2014)

[CIFOR] Bushmeat in the tri-frontier region of Brazil, Peru and Colombia: Demise or persistence? (2014)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2013 – 2014 (2014)

[WA] WildAid Annual Report (2013)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2013)

[IUCN] Status of African elephant populations and levels of illegal killing and the illegal trade in ivory. (December, 2013)

[IUCN] Status of Elephants in Botswana. (December, 2013)

[TRAFFIC] Falling demand for ivory in Cambodia and Singapore? (November, 2013)

[IFAW] Impact evaluation on ivory trade in China (July, 2013)

[EnoughProject] Kony’s Ivory: How Elephant Poaching in Congo Helps Support the Lord’s Resistance Army (June, 2013)

[IFAW] Criminal Nature: The Global Security Implications of the Illegal Wildlife Trade – 2013 (June, 2013)

[EIA] Environmental Crime: A Threat to our Future (May, 2013)

[EIA] Stop Stimulating Demand – Briefing which suggests that ivory trade discussions will increase demand and poaching. (March, 2013)

[EIA] Vietnam’s Illegal Rhino Horn Trade: Undermining the Effectiveness of CITES (March, 2013)

[IUCN/TRAFFIC] African and Asian Rhinoceroses – Status, Conservation and Trade (March, 2013)

[WWF/TRAFFIC] Reduced to Skin and Bones Revisited: Updated Tiger Seizures from 12 Range Countries (2000-2012) (March, 2013)

[WWF/TRAFFIC] 非法老虎贸易再探 (March, 2013)

[CERU] Elephants – A Way Forward (March, 2013)

[CITES] Operation Cobra I (February, 2013)

[EIA] Hidden in Plain Sight: China’s Clandestine Tiger Trade (February, 2013)

[EIA] 隐藏在明处  中国的秘密老虎贸易 (February, 2013)

[IFAW] Project Web: An investigation into the ivory trade over the internet within the European Union (February, 2013)

[IFAW] The $200 Million Question: How much does trophy hunting contribute to African communities? (February, 2013)

[IFAW] Elephants and Ivory (February, 2013)

[CITES/IUCN/TRAFFIC] Elephants in the Dust – Lengthy report on the latest elephant population and poaching status based on data gathered from MIKE sites. Also includes reflections on information from the ETIS program related to ivory seizures and recovery. (2013)

[TRAFFIC] Developpement D’un Systeme de Gestion des Stocks D’Ivoire au Gabon (2013)

[TRAFFIC] TRAFFIC’s Engagement in the Fight Against Illegal Trade in Elephant Ivory (2013)

[TRAFFIC] African Rhinos: The Facts (2013)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2012 – 2013 (2013)

[WA] WildAid Annual Report (2012)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2012)

[EIA] Appetite for Destruction: China’s Trade in Illegal Timber (November, 2012)

[EIA] 毁灭的欲望  中国的非法木材贸易 (November, 2012)

[EIA] Briefing on Snow Leopards in Illegal Trade – Asia’s Forgotten Cats (October, 2012)

[Panthera/WCS] Illegal hunting & the bushmeat trade in savanna Africa: Drivers, impacts & solutions to address the problem (October, 2012)

[AAsia] End Bear Bile Farming (October, 2012)

[IFAW] Protecting Bears Around the World – Fact Sheet (August, 2012)

[FWS] Facts about Rhino Horn (September, 2012)

[TRAFFIC] Survey Highlights Lao PDR’s Dark Trade in Ivory (July, 2012)

[IFAW] Killing with Keystrokes 2.0: IFAW’s investigation into the European online ivory trade (July, 2012)

[TRAFFIC] Behavior Change We Can Believe In: Towards A Global Demand Reduction Strategy for Tigers (May, 2012)

[TRAFFIC] Behavior Change We Can Believe In: Towards A Global Demand Reduction Strategy for Tigers – Russian version. (May, 2012)

[EIA] Blood Ivory: Exposing the myth of a regulated market (March, 2012)

[EIA] Tiger Bone Wine Auctions in China (February, 2012)

[TRAFFIC] Icon on Ice: International Trade and Management of Polar Bears (2012)

[TRAFFIC] The South Africa-Vietnam Rhino Horn Trade Nexus (2012)

[TRAFFIC] Illuminating the Blind Spot: Study on Illegal Trade in Leopard Parts in India (2001-2010) (2012)

[NatSCA] The Horns of a Dilemma: The Impact of the Illicit Trade in Rhino Horn (2012)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2011 – 2012 (2012)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2011)

[EIA] Key features of the Asian Big Cat (ABC) skin and bone trade in China in 2005-2011 (November, 2011)

[EIA/WPSI] Enforcement and Asian big cats (August, 2011)

[EIA] Leopards losing out at CITES as Parties let reporting slide (August, 2011)

[EIA] Briefing Document for the 61st Meeting of the CITES Standing Committee: Elephants (August, 2011)

[IUCN] Proceedings of the Asian Rhino Specialist Group Meeting, Kasiranga National Park, India 2010 (May, 2011)

[TRAFFIC] DRCongo Elaboration de la Strategie et du Plan D’action National Surla «Viande de Brousse (2011)

[TRAFFIC] Pills Powders Vials and Flakes: Bear Bile Trade in Asia (2011)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2010 – 2011 (2011)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2010)

[EIA] Enforcement Not Extinction (Zero Tolerance on Tiger Trade) – Report on methods that immediately need to be implemented to save wild tigers. (November, 2010)

[GTI] Competing Demands: Understanding and Addressing the Socio-economic Forces that Work for and against Tiger Conservation (April, 2010)

[GTI/TRAFFIC] Tiger Trade and Trafficking (April, 2010)

[KEF] Fact Sheet 04: Proposals on the African Elephant for CITES CoP15 (January, 2010)

[KEF] Fact Sheet 03: CITES and the Ivory Trade (January, 2010)

[KEF] Fact Sheet 02: Elephant Poaching and the Ivory Trade (January, 2010)

[KEF] Fact Sheet 01: The African Elephant Coalition  – Please see this page on ElephantVoices for the most recent (2013) versions. (January, 2010)

[EV] Elephants, Ivory, and Trade: Trade decisions made by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species must place science over politics. Science (327) 1331-1332. (2010)

[EV] Letters to Science June 2010 regarding consequences of legal ivory trade (2010)

[TAWIRI/IUCN] Tanzania Elephant Management Plan 2010-2015 (2010)

[EIA] Open Season – Tanzania and Zambia seek to sell ivory stockpiles to Asian nations. (2010)

[TRAFFIC] Saiga Antelope Trade: Global Trends with Focus on South-east Asia (2010)

[TRAFFIC] Preliminary Assessment of Sunda Pangolin Trade in Sabah (2010)

[TRAFFIC] Reduced to Skin and Bones: Analysis of Tiger Seizures from 11 Range Countries (2010)

[TRAFFIC] The Big Cat Trade in Myanmar and Thailand (2010)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2009 – 2010 (2010)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2009)

[IUCN/TRAFFIC] African and Asian Rhinoceroses – Status, Conservation and Trade (November, 2009)

[IUCN] Report On The Meeting For Conservation of Sumatran and Javan Rhino in South East Asia 2009 (IUCN/SSC AsRSG) (October, 2009)

[EIA] A Deadly Game Of Cat And Mouse – China’s role in the tiger trade. (October, 2009)

[CERU] Elephants: Facts & Fables (October, 2009)

[EIA] Tiger Farming Economics Don’t Add Up (August, 2009)

[ConsBio] Bushmeat Supply and Consumption in a Tropical Logging Concession in Northern CongoConservation Biology, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1597-1608 (February, 2009)

[IUCN] Guidelines for the in situ re-introduction and translocation of African and Asian rhinoceros (February, 2009)

[AsESG/IUCN] The Human-Elephant Conflict: A Review of Current Status and Mitigation Methods (2009)

[TRAFFIC] An Assessment of Trade in Gibbons and Orang-utans in Sumatra, Indonesia (2009)

[TRAFFIC] The Elephant and Ivory Trade in Thailand (2009)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2008 – 2009 (2009)

[IFAW] Killing with Keystrokes: An Investigation of the Illegal Wildlife Trade on the World Wide Web (October, 2008)

[EIA] Skin Deep – Briefing on the sale of big cat skins in China. (July, 2008)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2008)

[IFAW] Criminal Nature: The Global Security Implications of the Illegal Wildlife Trade – 2008 (2008)

[TRAFFIC] Paper Tigers: The Role of the US Captive Tiger Population in Trade in Tiger Parts (2008)

[TRAFFIC] Proceedings of Workshop on Trade and Conservation of Pangolins Native to South and Southeast Asia (2008)

[TRAFFIC] The Wild Cat Trade in Myanmar (2008)

[TRAFFIC] Elephant and Ivory Trade in Myanmar (2008)

[TRAFFIC] An Assessment of Illegal Ivory Trade in Vietnam (2008)

[TRAFFIC] Paper Tigers: The Role of the US Captive Tiger Population in Trade in Tiger Parts (2008)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2007 – 2008 (2008)

[TRAFFIC] Study on the Effectiveness of the EC Wildlife Trade Regulations  (December, 2007)

[CrisisGroup] Congo: Bringing Peace to North Kivu – An in-depth report on the rebel militias operating in Democratic Republic of Congo and the security of the country’s human and wildlife populations from 2003-2006. (October, 2007)

[EIA] Availability of Tiger Bone Wine at Wild Animal Parks in China (August, 2007)

[IFAW] Trading Tusks: An Investigation into Elephant Management and Ivory Trade in Southern Africa (May, 2007)

[IFAW] Le commerce des défenses Une enquête sur la gestion des éléphants et le commerce de l’ivoire en Afrique Australe (May, 2007)

[IFAW] Fatal Flaw: The inadequacies of Japan’s ivory trade controls (April, 2007)

[AsRSG/IUCN] Report on the Regional Meeting for India and Nepal IUCN/SSC Asian Rhino Specialist Group (March, 2007)

[IUCN] Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation: A Training Course for Community-Based Approaches in Africa (March, 2007)

[IUCN] African Elephant Status Report 2007 (Feb, 2007)

[IUCN/TRAFFIC] African and Asian Rhinoceroses – Status, Conservation and Trade (January, 2007)

[TRAFFIC/WWF] Taming the Tiger Trade (2007)

[TRAFFIC] Tiger Trade Revisited in Sumatra, Indonesia (2007)

[TRAFFIC] Taming the Tiger Trade: China’s Markets for Wild and Captive Tiger Prodcts Since the 1993 Ban (2007)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2006 – 2007 (2007)

[EIA] Skinning The Cat – Report on the trade of big cat skins. (September, 2006)

[IFAW] Ivory Market in China – China Ivory Trade Survey Report (June, 2006)

[TRAFFIC] No Peace for Elephants: Unregulated Domestic Ivory Markets in Angola and Mozambique (2006)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2005 – 2006 (2006)

[WPSI] Shahtoosh: The Illegal Trade (2006)

[TRAFFIC] Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Trade in Bear Parts (2006)

[TRAFFIC] No Oasis: The Egyptian Ivory Trade in 2005 (June, 2005)

[WPSI] WPSI-Ranthambhore Tiger Census (May, 2005)

[FWS] Distinguishing Real vs Fake Tiger Penises (March, 2005)

[EIA] Dead End – Briefing on a game-proof fence around Botswana’s Makgadikgadi National Park. (February, 2005)

[TRAFFIC] Rhino Horn Stockpile Management: Minimum Standards and Best Practices from East and Southern Africa (2005)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2004 – 2005 (2005)

[EIA] The Tiger Skin Trail – Report on the source and destination countries involved in the tiger skin trade. (October, 2004)

[EIA] The Enforcement Imperative – Report on how the implementation and strengthening of ivory-ban enforcement needs to be performed. (October, 2004)

[IW] The Last Stronghold: Cheetah in Iran (2004)

[TRAFFIC] Tackling the Ivories: The Status of US Trade in Elephant and Hippo Ivory (2004)

[TRAFFIC] Against the Grain: Trade in Musk Deer Products in Singapore and Malaysia (2004)

[TRAFFIC] No License to Kill: Population and Harvest of Musk Deer and Trade in Russia and Mongolia (2004)

[TRAFFIC] Nowhere to Hide: The Trade in Sumatran Tiger (2004)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2003 – 2004 (2004)

[IUCN] African Elephant Status Report 2002 (Oct, 2003)

[STE] The Ivory Markets of East Asia (March, 2003)

[EIA] Undermined: Destruction of Tiger Habitat in India (March, 2003)

[TRAFFIC] Fading Footprints: The Killing and Trade of Snow Leopards (2003)

[TRAFFIC] More Ivory than Elephants: Domestic Ivory Markets in Three West African Countries (2003)

[TRAFFIC] An Assessment of the Domestic Ivory Carving Industry and Trade Controls in India (2003)

[EIA] Back in Business – Report on the renewed interest in ivory in Asia. (October, 2002)

[TRAFFIC] The World’s Unregulated Domestic Ivory Markets (October, 2002)

[TRAFFIC] Conservation of Tigers and Other Asian Big Cats (October, 2002)

[TRAFFIC] Musk Market Survey Report: Endangered Species Scientific Convention of the PRC (March, 2002)

[TRAFFIC] China’s Management of Trade in Elephant Products (2002)

[TRAFFIC] An Assessment of Illegal Trade in Elephant Products in Vietnam (2002)

[TRAFFIC] An Investigation of Ivory Market in Taiwan (2002)

[TRAFFIC] Japan’s Trade in Ivory after the Tenth CoP to CITES (2002)

[TRAFFIC] The Trade of Elephant Products in Myanmar (2002)

[EIA] Thailand’s Tiger Economy (June, 2001)

[TRAFFIC] Musk Deer Farming as Conservation Tool in China (2001)

[EIA] Lethal Experiment – How CITES-approved ivory sale increased elephant poaching. (April, 2000)

[TRAFFIC] Trade in Musk and Bear Bile in India (2000)

[CITES] South African Population of the African Elephant (2000?)

[TRAFFIC] On the Scent: Conserving Musk Deer – Uses of Musk and Europes Role in Trade (1999)

[TRAFFIC] A Review of United States Bear Trade Laws (1999)

[IUCN] African Rhino: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (1999)

[WPSI] Signed and Sealed: The Fate of the Asian Elephant (1998/1999)

[TRAFFIC] Monitoring of Trade in Elephant Products and Illegal Killing of Elephants: Nairobi, Kenya December 1997 (1998)

[TRAFFIC] While Supplies last: The Sale of Tiger and Endangered Species Medicines in North America ’96-97 (January, 1998)

[TRAFFIC] Overview of World Trade in Cervid Antler in United States and Canada (August, 1997)

[TRAFFIC] Rhino Progress: The Response to CITES Conf 9.14 (June, 1997)

[TRAFFIC] Rhino Horn and Tiger Bone in China: An Investigation of Trade Since 1993 (May, 1997)

[TRAFFIC] Still in Business: The Ivory Trade in Asia 7 Years After CITES Ban (April, 1997)

[TRAFFIC] Tiger Progress: The Response to CITES Conf 9.13 (1997)

[IUCN] Asian Rhinos – Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (1997)

[WPSI] A God in Distress: Threats of Poaching and the Ivory Trade to the Asian Elephant (1997)

[WPSI] Fashioned for Extinction: An Exposé of the Shahtoosh Trade (1997)

[TRAFFIC/CITES] On a Knife’s Edge – The Rhinoceros Horn Trade in Yemen (1997)

[IUCN] The Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (1996)

[TRAFFIC] Under Siege: Poaching and Protection of Greater One-horned Rhino in India (1996)

[TRAFFIC] The Bear Facts: East Asian Market for Bear Gall Bladder (1995)

[TRAFFIC] Status, Management, and Commercialization of the American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) (1995)

[TRAFFIC] Killed For A Cure: A Review of the Worldwide Trade in Tiger Bone (1994)

[TRAFFIC] The World Trade in Rhino Horn (September, 1992)

[TRAFFIC] Identification Guide for Ivory and Substitutes (1992)

[TRAFFIC] The Decline of the Black Rhino in Zimbabwe (1992)

[TRAFFIC] The Horns of a Dilemma: The Market for Rhino Horn in Taiwan (1992)

[TRAFFIC] The Asian Trade in Bears and Bear Parts (1991)

[TRAFFIC] Cultural Significance of Pacific Fruit Bats Pteropus to Chamorro People of Guam (1991)

[IUCN] The Asian Elephant: An Action Plan for its Conservation (1990)

[EIA] A System of Extinction: The African Elephant Disaster (September, 1989)

[TRAFFIC] Non-human Primates in Netherlands: Survey of Import and Export, Ownership, and Use (1988)

[TRAFFIC] International Primate Trade: Legislation, Trade, and Captive Breeding (1984)

[Smith.edu] Rhinoceros unicornis (Greater One-horned Rhino) (December, 1983)


Publications on Ocean Reefs, Fisheries & Hunting of Whales, Dolphins, Porpoises, and Seals

This section houses links to many publications related to sea life consumption in all forms, legal and illegal. Topics include ocean reef health, over-fishing, freshwater and saltwater fish consumption, illegal and “scientific” cetacean hunting, and seal hunting.

Some publications have English versions as well as a version translated into another language. These translated versions are listed after the applicable English version for ease of access. For a full list of publications by WildAid.org please view their resources page.

[WWF] Fishing for Proteins: How marine fisheries impact on global food security up to 2050. A global prognosis (Jan, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] Shark fin and mobulid ray gill plate trade in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan (November, 2016)

[EIA] Collateral Damage: How illegal trade in totoaba swim bladders is driving vaquita to extinction (September, 2016)

[EIA] 间接伤害: 加利福尼亚湾石首鱼鱼鳔 非法贸易正如何导致小头 鼠海豚走向灭绝 (September, 2016)

[EIA] Daño Colateral: Cómo el comercio ilegal de vejigas natatorias de la totoaba está llevando a la vaquita a la extinción (September, 2016)

[WWF] Illegal Fishing: Which fish species are at highest risk from illegal and unreported fishing? (October, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Eel Market Dynamics: an analysis of Anguilla production, trade and consumption in East Asia (July 2015)

[WWF] Smart Investments in Ocean Health (June, 2015)

[WWF] Reviving the Oceans Economy: The Case for Action2015 (April, 2015)

[EIA] Slayed in Iceland: The commercial hunting and international trade in endangered fin whales (September, 2014)

[WA] Evidence of Declines in Shark Fin Demand – China (August, 2014)

[WA] The Continuing Threat to Manta and Mobula Rays – 2013-14 Market Surveys, Guangzhou, China (June, 2014)

[WA] Palau: Northen Reef Assessment (May, 2014)

[EIA] Illegal drift netting in the Mediterranean (May, 2014)

[EIA] Toxic Catch: Japan’s unsustainable and irresponsible whale, dolphin and porpoise hunts (October, 2013)

[IFAW] The Economics of the Japanese Whaling Industry: A collapsing industry burdens taxpayers (February, 2013)

[IFAW] Grey Seals in Atlantic Canada: to Cull or Not to Cull? (October, 2012)

[IFAW] Defending Seals (October, 2012)

[IFAW] South Atlantic Whale Sanctuary: Securing a future for whales through cooperation, research and non-consumptive use (June, 2012)

[IFAW] Economics of Canada’s Commercial Seal Hunt 2011 update (May, 2012)

[EIA] Breaking Ranks: Denmark Goes It Alone on Whaling Policy (May, 2012)

[WWF] A Market Price Valuation Of Tuna Resources In The Western Indian Ocean – An Indicative Regional & Country/Eez Perspective (February, 2012)

[IFAW] Survey for harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) of the Dogger Bank and southern North Sea (November, 2011)

[EIA] Renegade Whaling – Iceland’s and Japan’s illegal whale trade. (July, 2011)

[WA] The End of the Line? – Global Threats to Sharks (November, 2010)

[WA] Bleeding the oceans dry? – The overfishing and decline of global sharks stocks (October, 2009)

[EIA] Poisonous Policies – Report detailing Japan’s policies that support the sale of polluted whale and dolphin products. (June, 2008)

[EIA] 有害政策 – 汚染されたクジラ・イルカ 由来食品の販売を禁止しない日本 (June, 2008)

[EIA] Stop The Dall’s Disaster – Facts on the Japanese hunt of Dall porpoises. (June, 2006)

[IFAW] Report of the International Panel of Independent Legal Exports On: Special Permit (“Scientific”) Whaling Under International Law (May, 2006)

[EIA] Oceans Under Siege – The impacts of whale, porpoise, and dolphin hunting. (May, 2005)

[EIA] Global Chemical Pollution and the Hunting of Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises (July, 2004)

[EIA] Mercury Rising – Report on polluted meat from whales, porpoises, and dolphins sold in Japan. (June, 2003)

[EIA] The Facts Behind Japan’s Whale, Dolphin and Porpoise Hunting (May, 2002)

[EIA] Towards Extinction – Report on Japanese exploitation of porpoises and dolphins. (June, 2000)


Publications on Legally and Illegally Operating Businesses, Organized Crime, & Government Corruption

[EIA] The Role of Corruption in Wildlife and Forest Crime (November, 2015)

[EIA] Who Watches the Watchmen? Auditors and the Breakdown of Oversight in the RSPO (November, 2015)

[EIA] Qui Garde Les Gardiens? Les auditeurs et la crise de la surveillance au sein de la RSPO (November, 2015)

[EIA] ¿Quién Vigila a Los Vigilantes? Auditores y el deterioro de la supervisión al interior de la RSPO (November, 2015)

[EIA] Siapa Yang Mengawasi Para Pengawas? Para auditor dan kegagalan pengawasan dalam RSPO (November, 2015)

[IFAW] ELEPHANT vs MOUSE – An investigation of the Ivory Trade on Craigslist (April, 2015)

[EIA] Blood e-Commerce: Rakuten’s profits from the slaughter of elephants and whales (March, 2014)

[EIA] Banking on Extinction – Briefing about HSBC’s loans to groups w are exploiting natural resources in an environmentally unsustainable manner and which threatens the survival of many rainforest species. (November, 2013)

[EIA] Google and the promotion of whale and elephant product sales in Japan (March, 2013)

[EIA] Testing the Law – Report on Indonesian palm oil companies operating illegally. (July, 2012)

[EIA] Menguji Hukum – Report on Indonesian palm oil companies operating illegally. (July, 2012)

[EIA] Killing for Commerce – A report on Yahoo!’s role in whale product sales. (June, 2012)

[EIA] The Laundering Machine – A report on US companies that illegally import wood from the Peruvian Amazon. (April, 2012)

[EIA] Amazon.com’s Unpalatable Profits – A report on cetacean food products sold on Amazon.jp. (February, 2012)

[WA/CI] An Analysis of the Law Enforcement Chain in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape – Examines Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador. (April, 2010)

[WA/CI] Análisis de la Cadena de Aplicación de la Ley en el Paisaje Marino del Pacífico Este Tropical – Examines Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador. (April, 2010)

[EIA] Buyer Beware – A report on the origins of merbau wood flooring sold in the UK. (October, 2008)

[EIA] Environmental Crime – A report documenting the impact of organized environmental crimes. (October, 2008)

[EIA] Borderlines – Report on corruption within Indonesia’s judicial system which fails to prosecute illegal logging. (March, 2008)

[EIA] The Gorton’s Family Whale Killing Business – A UK business’s ties to Japanese whale hunting. (December, 2005)

[EIA] Whale*Mart – Report on Wal-Mart’s ties to Japanese whale and dolphin hunting. (February, 2004)

[EIA] Above The Law – Details on the corruption of Indonesian law enforcement and government officials who permit illegal logging in national parks. (January, 2003)

[EIA] The Cost of Convenience – Report into the relationship between 7-Eleven, its Japanese majority share holder Ito-Yokado, and Japan’s whale and dolphin hunting. (May, 2002)


Wildlife Trade Detection & Enforcement

Publications relating to proposed and implemented programs relating to enforcement measures as well as detection of trafficked wildlife products.

[WD] Scoping study on the prosecution of wildlife related crimes in Kenyan courts January 2008 to June 2013Click here for the PDF. (January, 2014)

[TRAFFIC] Hand Book on Wildlife Law Enforcement in India (2010)

[TRAFFIC] The First Regional Workshop on the South Asia Wildlife Trade Initiative, 31st January-1st February 2008 Kathmandu, Nepal (February, 2008)

[TRAFFIC] EU-TWIX: An internet tool to assist the EU in the fight against wildlife trade crime (May, 2007)

[TRAFFIC] Le commerce illégal et la vente d’espèces CITES en Belgique: Ivoire d’éléphant et autres spécimens (May, 2007)

[TRAFFIC] Enforcement of Wildlife Trade Controls in EU Member States: Country Profiles (2006)

[TRAFFIC] Proceedings of the International Expert Workshop on Wildlife Detector Dogs (2006)

[TRAFFIC] By Hook or by Crook: A reference manual on illegal wildlife trade and prosecutions in the United Kingdom (1998)

[TRAFFIC] The feasibility of using canines to detect wildlife contraband (1997)

[TRAFFIC] The implementation and enforcement of CITES in the European Union (January, 1995)

[TRAFFIC] Wildlife Trade: A handbook for enforcement staff (August 1994)


Publications on Wildlife Behavior, Abilities, Phenomena, and the Study of Wildlife

For the most up-to-date list of publications with authors from Elephant Voices please visit their publication page.

[EV] Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana). (2013)

[EV] Association patterns of African elephants in all-male groups: the role of age and genetic relatedness. Animal Behaviour (2011)

[EV] Leadership in elephants: the adaptive value of age. (March 2011)

[EV] Why Do African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) Simulate Oestrus? An Analysis of Longitudinal Data. PLoS ONE (2010)

[EV] Do elephants show Empathy? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 15, No. 10-11, pp. 204-25. (2008)

[EV] Elephant sociality and complexity: The scientific evidence. In: Elephants and Ethics: Toward a morality of Co-existence. C. Wemmer & K. Christen (Eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press. (2008)

[EV] Fine-scaled population genetic structure in a fission-fusion society. Molecular Ecology 17: 2666-2679. (2008)

[EV] Mind and Movement: Meeting the Interests of Elephants. In: An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well Being of Elephants in Captivity. (2008)

[EV] Why study elephant cognition? Current Biology, Vol 18, No 13, R544-546. (2008)

[EV] Age, musth and paternity success in wild male African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Animal Behaviour, 74: 287-296 (2007)

[EV] Behavioural inbreeding avoidance in wild African elephants. Molecular Ecology. (2007)

[EV] African elephants have expectations about locations of out-of-sight family members. Biology Letters. (2007)

[EV] Elephants classify human ethnic groups by odour and garment colour. Current Biology. (2007)

[EV] Wild African elephants discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecific seismic alarm calls. (2007)

[EV] Elephant Breakdown. Social trauma: Early trauma and social disruption can affect the physiology, behaviour and culture of animals and humans over generations. Nature, 433: 807. (2005)

[EV] Elephants are capable of vocal learning. Nature, 434: 455-456. (2005)

[EV] The Ethical Management of Elephants and the Value of Long-Term Field Research. AAVS 63: 2-5 (2005)

[EV] The visual, tactile & acoustic signals of play in African savannah elephants. (2004)

[EV] Proceedings of the Symposium on Human Elephant Relationships and Conflicts, Sri Lanka, September 2003. Biodiversity & Elephant Conservation Trust, Colombo. Pages 44-50. (2004)

[EV] Mate guarding, reproductive success and female choice in African elephants. Anim. Behav., 1989, 37, 842-849. Biology Department, Princeton University, New Jersey. (1989)

[EV] Announcing intent: the aggressive state of musth in African elephants. Anim. Behav., 1989, 37, 140-152. Biology Department, Princeton University, New Jersey. (1989)

[EV] Rutting behavior in African Elephants: The phenomenon of musth. Behaviour. 102: 283-316. (1987)

[EV] Musth and male-male competition in the African elephant. By Joyce Poole, PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 1982.