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Reports, Research, & Publications Index

This page serves as an index of publications that detail hard data on environmental crimes, wildlife trafficking, and ties that businesses and governments have to illegal industries and even organized crime. This index may best help researchers in quickly and easily identifying primary sources, original research, and other significant sources of information. But many of the publications are very accessible and anyone interested in learning more about these topics would benefit from reading these publications.

Our index, which is updated regularly, is sorted in chronological order from most-recent to oldest. Dates of publication append the report names for ease of sorting. Please be advised that some publications may contain graphic or disturbing images.

The Rhino Resource Center, which PoachingFacts has no affiliation to, is highly recommended for its extensive collection and digital archive of environmental documents making it an essential resource for researchers at any level.

Publication Sources
The publications listed on this page have been published or co-authored by the groups, or members of the groups, listed below using informal abbreviations. Please consider supporting these groups so that they can continue to maintain free, publicly accessible digital copies of their reports online and continue to produce publications in the future.

AA – Animals Asia
ADMCF – ADM Capital Foundation
AF – The Aspinall Foundation
ANGONET – Arusha Non-Governmental Organization Network
ASEAN-WEN – Association of Southeast Asian Nations’ Wildlife Enforcement Network
AsESG – Asian Elephant Specialist Group, part of the IUCN
AsRSG – Asian Rhino Specialist Group, part of the IUCN
AWI – Animal Welfare Institute
BF – Born Free
CERU – Conservation Ecology Research Unit (University of Pretoria)
CI – Conservation International
CIFOR – Center for International Forestry Research
CITES – Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
EAL – Elephant Action League (now Earth League International)
EAW – East African Wild Life Society
EIA – Environmental Investigation Agency
ELI – Earth League International (formerly Elephant Action League)
ENV – Education for Nature Vietnam
EV – Publications authored by members of Elephant Voices (Hosted publications)
FTB – Free The Bears
FWS – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
GTI – Global Tiger Initiative (More publications)
IFAW – International Fund for Animal Welfare
IRF – International Rhino Foundation
IUCN – International Union for Conservation of Nature (Mammal publications)
JTEF – Japan Tiger Elephant Fund
KEF – Kenya Elephant Forum
KWS – Kenya Wildlife Service (More downloads)
LATF – Lusaka Agreement Task Force
PSG – Pangolin Specialist Group
Panthera – Panthera, Inc.
RSC – Royal Society of Chemistry
SANParks – South African National Parks
SRI – Save the Rhino International
TAWIRI – Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute
TGIATOC – The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime
TRAFFIC – Trade Records Analysis on Flora and Fauna in Commerce. (Species Reports, Bulletins, and Publications)
UNEP – United Nations Environmental Programme
UNODC – United Nations Office on Drugs & Crime
WA – WildAid
WAP – World Animal Protection
WCS – Wildlife Conservation Society
WD – Wildlife Direct
WPSI – Wildlife Protection Society of India
WWF – World Wildlife Fund

Publications on Plants, Forestry, Logging, & Timber Trafficking

Some publications in English also have a version translated into another language. Translated versions are listed after the applicable English version for ease of access.

[EIA] Deforestation in the Driver’s Seat: Illegal Cattle Ranching, Amazon Deforestation, and the Automotive Leather Industry (December, 2022)

[EIA] How Russian Conflict Birch Makes its Way to American Consumers (September, 2022)

[EIA] The EU’s Renewable Energy Policies Driving the Logging and Burning of Europe’s Protected Forests (September, 2022)

[EIA] Poached Timber: Forest Crimes, Corruption, and Ivory Trafficking in the Malian Rosewood Trade with China (May, 2022)

[EIA] The Lie Behind the Ply (June, 2022)

[EIA] How U.S. Imports of Agricultural Commodities Contribute to Deforestation and Why it Matters (Oct, 2021)

[EIA] Investigator Magazine: How Burmese Timber for the Superyachts of the Super-rich Funds the Military Junta (October, 2021)

[EIA] Deforestation and Deregulation: Indonesia’s Policies and Implications for its Palm Oil Sector (October, 2021)

[EIA] Deforestasi dan Deregulasi – Kebijakan dan implikasinya terhadap sektor kelapa sawit di Indonesia (October, 2021)

[EIA] The Italian Job: How Myanmar (Burmese) Timber is Trafficked Through Italy to the Rest of Europe Despite EU Laws (September, 2021)

[EIA] L’affare Italiano – Come il legname del Myanmar attraverso l’Italia raggiunge il resto d’Europa nonostante le leggi dell’UE (September, 2021)

[EIA] ြမနမ်ာသ့ စမ်ျား ဥေရာပသမဂ0ဥပေဒကနသ့်တခ်ျက (September, 2021)

[EIA] Tainted Beef: How Criminal Cattle Supply Chains Are Destroying the Colombian Amazon (May, 2021) – With an accompanying video.

[EIA] Cómo las Cadenas de Suministro de Ganado Están Destruyendo la Amazonía Colombiana (May, 2021) – Con un video adjunto.

[TRAFFIC] Sweet Dreams: Assessing opportunities and threats in Kazakhstan’s wild liquorice root trade (April, 2021)

[EIA] Taxing Questions – Evidence of tax evasion in teak exports from Myanmar (March, 2021) – Multiple languages.

[EIA] Burning Questions – Credibility of sustainable palm oil still illusive (February, 2021)

[EIA] Criminal Neglect – Failings in enforcement undermine efforts to stop illegal logging in Indonesia (January, 2021)

[EIA] Gagalnya Penegakan Hukum Dalam Menghentikan Pembalakan Liar di Indonesia (January, 2021) – Indonesian language report on the failures to enforce illegal logging.

[EIA] Double Impact – The nexus where wildlife and forest crime overlap (January, 2021)

[TRAFFIC] The Invisible Trade – Wild plants and you in the time of COVID-19 (June, 2020)

[EIA] The Croatian Connection Exposed (May, 2020) – Report on the European timber traders evading EU laws to import or sell products from Myanmar (Burma).

[EIA] ခရုိေအးရွားသစ္လမ္းေၾကာင္း ေဖာ္ထုတ္ျခင္း- ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံထြက္ တရားမဝင္ကၽြန္းသစ္မ်ားကို ဥေရာပေနာက္ေဖးေပါက္မွ တင္သြင္းျခင္း  (May, 2020) – Burmese language report on the European timber traders evading EU laws to import or sell products from Myanmar (Burma).

[TRAFFIC] A Critical Assessment of the Economic and Environmental Sustainability of the Namibian Indigenous Forest / Timber Industry with Reference to Zambia and Angola (April, 2020)

[EIA] Who Watches the Watchmen? 2 (November, 2019)

[EIA] State of Corruption – The top-level conspiracy behind the global trade in Myanmar’s stolen teak (February, 2019)

[EIA] Vietnam in Violation: Action required on fake CITES permits for rosewood trade (September, 2018)

[TGIATOC] The role of online platforms in the illegal orchid trade (September, 2018) – From Southeast Asia.

[TRAFFIC] Enhancing Management and Benefit Flows in Viet Nam’s Wild Medicinal Products (August, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Wild at Home: The global harvest and trade of wild plant ingredients (June, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Eastward bound: Analysis of CITES-listed flora and fauna exports from Africa to East and Southeast Asia (March, 2018)

[EIA] A Tale of Two Laws: Using Existing EU and US Laws to Strengthen Action on Illegal Timber Trade (February, 2018)

[EIA/JPIK] Still Permitting Crime – How Impunity for Illegal Palm Oil Undermines Indonesia’s Flagship Timber Reforms (June, 2017)

[EIA/JPIK] Masih Perizinan Bagi Tindak Kriminal – Bagaimana Kekebalan Hukum Perusahaan Sawit Ilegal Merusak Reformasi Industri Kayu (June, 2017)

[EIA] Repeat Offender: Vietnam’s persistent trade in illegal timber (April, 2017) – Additional resources and evidence.

[EIA] ជនបន្តល្មើសដដែលៗ: ការរកស៊ីឈើខុសច្បាប់រ៉ាំរ៉ៃនៅក្នុង ប្រទេសវៀតណាម (April, 2017)

[EIA] TỘI PHẠM TÁI PHẠM: Hoạt động kinh doanh gỗ bất hợp pháp dai dẳng của Việt Nam (April, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] Overview of the Timber Trade in East and Southern Africa: National Perspectives and Regional Trade Linkages (February, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] Timber Island: The Rosewood and Ebony Trade of Madagascar (November, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] L’île Aux Bois: Commerce de Bois de Rose et de Bois d’Ébène de Madagascar (November, 2016)

[EIA] Overdue Diligence: Teak exports from Myanmar in breach of European Union rules (October, 2016)

[EIA] Cycles of Destruction: Unsustainability, Illegality and Violence in the Hongmu Trade (September, 2016)

[EIA] Red Alert: How fraudulent Siamese rosewood exports from Laos and Cambodia are undermining CITES protection (June, 2016)

[EIA] Built on Lies: New Homes in Japan Destroy Old Forests in Europe (June, 2016)

[EIA] Missing the Forest for the Carbon? EIA Analysis of the FCPF Carbon Fund (June, 2016)

[EIA] Avoiding Illegal timber in China: Due Diligence Recommendations (April, 2016)

[EIA/IFMN/JPIK] Loopholes in Legality: How a Ministry of Trade Decree Benefits Shadowy Timber Exporters & Undermines legal Reforms (March, 2016)

[EIA/IFMN/JPIK] Celah Dalam Legalitas: Bagaimana Keputusan Menteri Perdagangan Dimanfaatkan Oleh Eksportir Kayu Dan Melemahkan Reformasi Hukum (March, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] China’s Market Potential for Sustainably Sourced Wild Plants (Feb, 2016)

[EIA] Organised Chaos: The illicit overland timber trade between Myanmar and China – Also available in Burmese. (September, 2015)

[EIA] 乱中有序: 中缅陆路非法木材贸易 (September, 2015)

[CI/WWF] Sustainable Sourcing Guide for Palm Oil Users (May, 2015)

[WWF] Living Forests Report Chapter 5: Saving Forests at Risk (April, 2015) – A report identifying projected at-risk regions accounting for a large percentage of deforestation expected from 2010-2030.

[EIA] Deforestation by Definition (April, 2015) – A report on the deforestation continuing in the Peruvian Amazon caused by palm oil and other plantations.

[EIA] Deforestación Ilegal en la Amazonía Peruana plantaciones de Palma Aceitera (April, 2015)

[EIA] Briefing for the Regional Dialogue on Siamese Rosewood and Illegal Logging (December, 2014)

[EIA] Permitting Crime: How palm oil expansion drives illegal logging in Indonesia (December, 2014)

[WWF] A rapid assessment of the illegal timber trade across the Ruvuma river on the Tanzania and Mozambique border (December, 2014)

[EIA] EIA response to China’s draft timber guidelines (August, 2014)

[EIA] First Class Crisis: China’s Criminal and Unsustainable Intervention in Mozambique’s Miombo Forests (July, 2014)

[EIA] Myanmar’s Rosewood Crisis (July, 2014)

[EIA] Routes of Extinction: The corruption and violence destroying Siamese rosewood in the Mekong (May, 2014)

[WWF] The Heart of Borneo Environmental Status Report (May, 2014)

[CIFOR] Oil palm estate development and its impact on forests and communities in West Papua (April, 2014)

[EIA] Lumber Liquidators importing illegal hardwood flooring (October, 2013) – Illegal logging in Russia’s far east which threatens tiger populations.

[EIA/TRAFFIC/WWF] Wildlife and Forest Crime: CCPCJ 22 (April, 2013) – A joint briefing on the 22nd Session of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ).

[EIA] EIA Comments on the 6th Draft of the Vietnamese Timber and Timber Product Legality Definition (February, 2013)

[EIA] First Class Connections: Log Smuggling, Illegal Logging and Corruption in Mozambique (February, 2013)

[EIA] Checkpoints (September, 2012) – A report on the forest management in Laos being undermined by interest groups.

[UNEP/INTERPOL] Green Carbon, Black Trade: Illegal Logging, Tax Fraud and Laundering in the World’s Tropical Forests (September, 2012)

[EIA] Clear-Cut Exploitation (May, 2012) – West Papua deforestation and the investors that profit from it.

[EIA] Rosewood Robbery (February, 2012) – Briefing on unsustainable and illegal logging of Thailand’s rosewood.

[EIA] ภาษาไทย (February, 2012) – Briefing on unsustainable and illegal logging of Thailand’s rosewood.

[EIA] Hard Evidence of Continued Import of Illegal Timber from Malaysia to Japan (December, 2011)

[EIA] 日本がマレーシアから違法木材を継続的に輸入していることについて (日本語) (December, 2011)

[EIA] Crossroads – The illegal trade of lumber between Vietnam and Laos. (July, 2011)

[EIA] TRÊN NHỮNG GIAO LỘ Buôn Bán Gỗ Bất Hợp Pháp Giữa Lào và Việt Nam (July, 2011)

[EIA] ການຄ້າໄມ້ເຖື່ອນ ລະຫວ່າງລາວແລະຫວຽດນາມ (July, 2011)

[EIA] Caught REDD Handed (June, 2011) – Norway’s relationship with the Indonesian moratorium on logging.

[EIA] Rogue Traders (August, 2010) – Exposé of some of Indonesia’s key players in the illegal lumber trade.

[EIA] Bisnis Hitam (August, 2010) – Penyelundupan Kayu Merbau Di Indonesia.

[EIA] Up For Grabs: Deforestation And Exploitation In Papua’s Plantations Boom (December, 2009)

[EIA] Putting The Brakes on the Drivers of Forest Destruction (November, 2009)

[WWF/TGI] Illegal Wood for the European Market (December, 2008)

[EIA] Due Negligence: The Case for Stronger EU Legislation on Illegal Timber (May, 2009)

[EIA] Receiving Stolen Goods: Why the UK Must Legislate Against Trade in Illegal Timber (July, 2007)

[EIA] The Thousand-Headed Snake (March, 2007) – Report on corruption within Indonesia’s judicial system which fails to prosecute illegal logging.

[EIA] Illegal and Unsustainable Trade in Ramin (October, 2006) – Briefing on the trade of Ramin hardwood which grows in Indonesia and Malaysia.

[EIA] America’s Free Trade for Illegal Timber (June, 2006)

[EIA] Behind The Veneer (March, 2006) – Report on the Indonesian origins of some wood flooring.

[EIA] Stemming the Tide (November, 2005) – Ideas on how to stop the East- and Southeast Asian illegal logging trade.

[EIA] The Illegal Logging Crisis in Honduras (November, 2005) – American and European imports of wood from Honduras impacts the environment and local communities.

[EIA] The Last Frontier (February, 2005) – Report on illegal timber being smuggled from Indonesia to China.

[EIA] The Ramin Racket (September, 2004) – Report on CITES’ role in combating the illegal lumber trade.

[EIA] Profiting from Plunder (February, 2004) – Report on illegal logging in Indonesia supplying Malaysia.

[EIA] Timber Trafficking (September, 2001) – Illegal logging in Southeast Asia.

[EIA] The Politics of Extinction (July, 1998) – Report on threats posed by legal and illegal logging to orangutan populations.

Publications on Wildlife Conservation, Trafficking, & Trade

For an extensive listing of reports published by TRAFFIC please see their pages on Species Reports, Bulletins, and other Publications by topic. Pachyderm Journal also has a great archive of reports, as does Global Tiger Initiative and the IUCN. The most recent Kenya Elephant Forum fact sheets (2013) are available from ElephantVoices.

Most publications are in English but some have versions translated into another language. These translated versions are listed directly after the applicable English version for ease of access. Dates shown relate to the time of publication.

[ELI] Operation Jaguar: Final Report (March, 2023) – The concluding report to the operation launched in 2019.

[EIA] Rhinoceros Poaching in Botswana: A situational analysis (November, 2022)

[EIA] Braconnage des Rhinocéros au Botswana : Une analyse de la situation (November, 2022)

[EIA] Two Sides of the Same Coin: Tackling transnational wildlife trafficking between West and Central Africa and South-East Asia (November, 2022)

[EIA] A Decade of National Ivory Action Plans – Where do we go from here? CoP19 (November, 2022)

[EIA] Ripe for Abuse: Japan’s Ivory Market (November, 2022)

[EIA] Ouvrant la Voie aux Abus: Le marché de l’ivoire au Japon (November, 2022) – French version of the above report.

[EIA] 悪用に直結:日本の象牙市場 (November, 2022) Japanese version of the above report.

[IRF] 2022 State of the Rhino (September, 2022) Global assessment of rhino poaching and current populations. The latest version of the State of the Rhino report is located on this IRF webpage.

[EIA] Poached Timber: Forest Crimes, Corruption, and Ivory Trafficking in the Malian Rosewood Trade with China (May, 2022)

[EIA] Lethal Loopholes: Global Traditional Chinese Medicine Interests and the Trade in Pangolins Between Uganda and China (April, 2022)

[EIA] Joint Responsibilities: The Nigeria-Vietnam Wildlife Trafficking Corridor and Compliance with CITES (March, 2022)

[EIA] Vietnam’s Footprint in Africa: An Analysis of the Role of Vietnamese Criminal Groups in Wildlife Trafficking (November, 2021)

[EIA] Dấu chân Việt Nam tại châu Phi – Phân tích vai trò của các nhóm tội phạm người Việt trong buôn bán động vật hoang dã trái phép (November, 2021)

[EIA] Orangutans in Crisis (October, 2021)

[EIA] Orang Utan Dalam Krisis (October, 2021)

[IRF] 2021 State of the Rhino (September, 2021) Global assessment of rhino poaching and current populations. The latest version of the State of the Rhino report is located on this IRF webpage.

[ADMCF] Still Trading in Extinction: The Dark Side of Hong Kong’s Wildlife Trade (March, 2021)

[ADMCF] 持續的滅絕交易:香 港 非 法 野生動植 物貿易 (March, 2021) – Executive Summary only.

[EIA] Double Impact – The nexus where wildlife and forest crime overlap (January, 2021)

[EIA/JTEF] Willing to Sell: Snapshot Investigations of Ivory Hanko Retailers in Japan (December, 2020)

[IUCN-NL] Unveiling the Criminal Networks Behind Jaguar Trafficking in Bolivia (November, 2020) – Article in Dutch: “Nieuw rapport onthult de criminele netwerken achter jaguarstroperij in Bolivia.”

[EIA] China’s complicity in the global illegal pangolin trade – Smoke and Mirrors (October, 2020)

[ENV] Wildlife Crime Bulletin Issue 2 (October, 2020) – Vietnam.

[TRAFFIC] The People Beyond the Poaching (September, 2020)

[TRAFFIC] The shifting dynamics of illegal wildlife trade in Southeast Asia and China (September, 2020) – Also titled “Counter wildlife trafficking digest: Southeast Asia and China, 2019.”

[TRAFFIC] Endangered by Trade: The ongoing illegal pangolin trade in the Philippines (August, 2020)

[ENV] Prosecution Review: Wildlife Crime in Vietnam 2015-2020 (August, 2020)

[ENV] Summary of Macaque Crime in Vietnam (July, 2020)

[UNODC] 2020 World Wildlife Crime Report (July, 2020) – Full report. The first full report since 2016.

[EIA] Money Trails – Identifying financial flows linked to wildlife trafficking (July, 2020)

[TRAFFIC] Vicious circle: Wildlife trafficking in Brazil (July, 2020) – A wildlife trafficking assessment.

[TRAFFIC] Trading Faces: A snapshot of the online ivory trade in Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam with an update in 2019 (July, 2020)

[TRAFFIC] Tackling Wildlife Cybercrime in the EU: How technology can help (July, 2020)

[TRAFFIC] Stop Wildlife Cybercrime in the EU – Online Trade in Reptiles and Birds in Belgium and the Netherlands (July, 2020)

[TRAFFIC] Les Stocks d’Ivoire d’Elephant de la République Démocratique du Congo: Quel Système de Gestion Mettre en Place? – Stockpiles of elephant ivory in DRC: what management measures to put in place? (French only) (June, 2020)

[TRAFFIC] Wildlife trade, COVID-19 and zoonotic disease risks: shaping the response (April, 2020)

[WJC] Rapid Assessment of the Impact of COVID-19 on Wildlife Trafficking (April, 2020)

[UNODC] World Wildlife Crime Report 2020 – Wildlife Crime: Pangolin scales (April, 2020) – A chapter of the report focused on the trafficking of pangolin species, particularly from Africa. The full report released July, 2020.

[EIA] Bitter Pill to Swallow – China’s Flagrant Trade in Leopard Bone Products (March, 2020)

[EIA] 食骨在喉:中国肆行的豹骨药品贸易 (March, 2020)

[EIA] Stop the Slaughter: Close Domestic Rhino Horn Markets (August, 2019)

[EIA] ARRÊTEZ LE MASSACRE: Fermez les Marchés Nationaux de Cornes de Rhinocéros (August, 2019)

[EIA] 停止杀戮:终结各国犀牛角交易 (August, 2019) – Chinese language version of “Stop the Slaughter” report.

[EIA] Resumen para Legisladores: Eliminación de mercados domésticos de cuernos de rinoceronte (August, 2019) – Spanish language briefing of “Stop the Slaughter” report.

[ADMCF/Multiple] The Pangolin Reports: Trafficked to Extinction (September, 2019)

[TRAFFIC] Skin and bones: Unresolved (August, 2019)

[TRAFFIC] Combating Wildlife Crime linked to the internet (August, 2019)

[TRAFFIC] Workshop Proceedings from the regional workshop on the launch of SADC-TWIX (August, 2019) – A report on the Southern African Development Community (SADC) on the establishment of a Trade in Wildlife Information Exchange (TWIX).

[EIA] Tiger trade in Laos and call for trade suspensions at CITES SC71 (August, 2019)

[WAP] Trading Cruelty – How Captive Big Cat Farming Fuels the Traditional Asian Medicine Industry (July, 2019)

[EIA] Running Out of Time: Wildlife Crime Justice Failures in Vietnam (July, 2019)

[TRAFFIC] Tiger Product Consumers in Viet Nam (July, 2019)

[TRAFFIC] Reducing demand for illegal wildlife: Designing Effective Messages (June, 2019)

[TRAFFIC] Reducing demand for illegal wildlife: Choosing the Right Messenger (June, 2019)

[TRAFFIC] A compilation of seizures and prosecutions reported in the TRAFFIC Bulletin from 1997 onwards (April, 2019)

[TRAFFIC] Wildlife Cybercrime trends in China (March, 2019)

[EF] Skinned – The Growing Appetite for Asian Elephants (April, 2018/January, 2019) – A report on the trade of Asian elephant skins, fat, tails, and parts. Related publication: New elephant crisis in Asia—Early warning signs from Myanmar.

[ADMCF] Trading in Extinction: The Dark Side of Hong Kong’s Wildlife Trade (January, 2019)

[ADMCF] 滅絕交易:香 港 非 法 野生動植 物貿易 (January, 2019) – Executive Summary only.

[AF] Illegal Rhino Horn Trade Still Threatens Kruger’s Rhino (December, 2018) – A report by Lucy Vigne and Esmond Bradley Martin.

[USCC] China’s Role in Wildlife Trafficking and the Chinese Government’s Response (December. 2018)

[TGIATOC] Illicit Wildlife Markets and the Dark Web (November, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Wildlife trade in Belgium: An analysis of CITES trade and seizure data (November, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Bulletin 30 No. 2: Otter-Pelt Seizures in Nepal; Reptile Pet Market in Japan; Medicinal Use of Primates in Benin (October, 2018)

[UNODC] Research Brief – Wildlife Crime Status Update 2017 (October, 2018) – An update to the UNODC’s Wildlife Crime Report 2016.

[EIA] Eradicating the market for big cats (October, 2018)

[EIA] How Ivory Hanko Destroyed Africa’s Elephants and Drives Japan’s Illegal Ivory Trade (October, 2018)

[EIA] 象牙のハンコ:日本の違法な象牙取引&アフリカ ゾウの悲劇の元凶 (October, 2018)

[EIA] Superficial Reforms: An Analysis of Recent Amendments to Japan’s Ivory Control Laws (September, 2018)

[EIA] China and the Illegal Rhinoceros Horn Trade: Deficiencies and Recommendations (September, 2018)

[EIA] Taking Stock – An assessment of progress under the National Ivory Action Plan process (September, 2018) – NIAP under CITES.

[EIA] Faire le point: Une évaluation de l’avancement réalisé dans le cadre du processus lié au Plan d’action national pour l’ivoire (PANI) (September, 2018) – French version of the above report.

[EIA] Exposing the Hydra: The growing role of Vietnamese syndicates in ivory trafficking (September, 2018)

[EIA] Lộ diện quái thú Hydra: Vai trò ngày càng tăng của các băng nhóm Việt Nam trong buôn bán ngà voi (September, 2018) – Vietnamese version of the above report.

[TRAFFIC] China’s Ivory Auction Market: A comprehensive analysis of legislation, historical data and market survey results (September, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] China’s Ivory Market After the Ivory Trade Ban in 2018 (September, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Demand under the Ban – China Ivory Consumption Research Post-Ban 2018 (September, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] System Error, Reboot Required: Review of online ivory trade in Japan (September, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Trading Faces: A rapid assessment on the use of Facebook to trade wildlife in Thailand (September, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Reducing demand for illegal wildlife products (September, 2018)

[TGIATOC] Illegal Online Trade in Reptiles – From Madagascar (September, 2018)

[TGIATOC] Illegal Online Trade in Indonesian Parrots (September, 2018)

[TGIATOC] Ending Wildlife Trafficking – Local Communities as Change Agents (August, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] In Plane Sight: Wildlife Trafficking in the Air Transport Sector (August, 2018)

[EMS] The Extinction Business – South Africa’s ‘Lion’ Bone Trade (July, 2018) – Also see Appendix I, Appendix II, and Appendix III.

[EAL/ELI] Radiocarbon Testing Illegal Ivory in Europe’s Domestic Antique Trade: Europe’s Deadly Ivory Trade (July, 2018)

[TGIATOC] Catch Me If You Can – Legal Challenges to Illicit Wildlife Traffcking Over the Internet (July, 2018)

[TGIATOC] Cut the Purse Strings – Targeting the Online Illegal Wildlife Trade Through Digital Payment Systems (June, 2018)

[TGIATOC] Digitally Enhanced Responses – New Horizons for Combating Online Illegal Wildlife Trade (June, 2018)

[EIA] Down to the bone: China’s alarming trade in leopard bones (June, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] The Illegal Otter Trade in Southeast Asia (June, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Uganda Wildlife Trafficking Assessment (April, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Bulletin 30 No. 1: Sumatra’s Cage Birdtrade; China’s Green Public Procurement; Sharks and Rays in Bangladesh (April, 2018)

[EIA] Out in the cold – The ongoing threat of snow leopard trade | 备受‘冷’待 ─ 非法贸易向雪豹造成的威胁 (March, 2018) – Dual-language report in English and Chinese.

[BF] Cash Before Conservation: An Overview of the Breeding of Lions for Hunting and Bone Trade (March, 2018)

[WNI] Quantifying the ecological success of a community-based wildlife conservation area in Tanzania (March, 2018)

[EIA] Out in the cold – The ongoing threat of snow leopard trade (备受‘冷’待——非法贸易向雪豹造成的威胁) (March, 2018) – Dual language.

[TRAFFIC] Eastward Bound: Analysis of CITES-listed flora and fauna exports from Africa to East and Southeast Asia (March, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Scale of Pangolin Trade in India between 2009–2017 (February, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] An assessment of South African dried abalone Haliotis midae consumption and trade in Hong Kong (February, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Mapping Motivations – Combating consumption of illegal wildlife in Viet Nam (January, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Monitoring and Evaluating Behaviour Change Amongst Illegal Wildlife Product Consumers: Good Practice Guidelines for Social and Behavioural Change Communications Practitioners and Communications Professionals (January, 2018)

[TRAFFIC/WWF] Guide to Wildlife Law Enforcement, Cameroon (January, 2018)

[TRAFFIC-WWF] Demand Under the Ban: China Ivory Consumption Research (Dec, 2017)

[EIA] Cultivating Demand – The Growing Threat of Tiger Farms (November, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] Bulletin 29 No. 2: Ivory in Campbodia; Online Wildlife Trade in the Philippines; Sustainable Harvesting of Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam; Malaysia’s Role in the Pangolin Trade (October, 2017)

[CITES] Status of Elephant Populations, Levels of Illegal Killing and the Trade in Ivory: A report to the CITES standing committee (October, 2017)

[WA] Pangolins – On the Brink (September, 2017) – To date, the most insightful and comprehensive report on global pangolin trafficking.

[TGIATOC] Diplomats and Deceit: North Korea’s Criminal Activities in Africa (September, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] Pendants, Powder and Pathways – A rapid assessment of smuggling routes and techniques used in the illicit trade in African rhino horn (September, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] Caged In The City: An inventory of birds for sale in Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam (September, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] Ivory Markets in Central Africa: Market Surveys in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Gabon: 2007, 2009, 2014/15 (September, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] Le marché de l’ivoire à Kinshasa, RD Congo, 2015-2016 (August, 2017) – See related publication titled “Demand Under the Ban: China Ivory Consumption Research (Dec, 2017)”.

[TRAFFIC/WWF] Revisiting China’s Ivory Markets in 2017 (August, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] An Updated Review of Online Ivory Trading in Japan (August, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] The U.S. Elephant Ivory Market: A New Baseline (July, 2017) – Article and summary.

[EIA] The Lion’s Share (July, 2017)

[EIA] The Shuidong Connection: Exposing the global hub of the illegal ivory trade (July, 2017)

[EIA] 揭密中国水东: 鲜为人知的 非洲象牙走私基地 (July, 2017)

[EIA] A Conexão de Shuidong: Expondo o centro global do comércio ilegal de marfim (July, 2017)

[EAL/ELI] Grinding Rhino: An Undercover Investigation on Rhino Horn Trafficking in China and Vietnam (July, 2017) – And the companion guide.

[TRAFFIC] The Shark and Ray Trade in Singapore (May, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] Bulletin 29 No. 1: Ethical Plant Trade; Greater Green Leafbirds; Serows in Lao PDR; Madagascar Timber Exports to China; Report of the 17th CITES Meeting (May, 2017)

[FTB/AA] The Status & Distribution of Bears in Vietnam 2016 (April, 2017)

[FTB/AA] Thực trạng & Sự phân bố của loài Gấu ở Việt Nam 2016 (April, 2017)

[STE] Decline in Legal Ivory Trade in China (March, 2017)

[STE] Beehive fences as a multidimensional conflict-mitigation tool for farmers coexisting with elephants (February, 2017)

[WPSI] Tiger & Leopard Poaching Statistics 1994-2016 (January, 2017)

[SRI] Rhino Rage: What is driving illegal consumer demand for rhino horn? (December, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Going Dutch: An Analysis of the Import of Live animals from Indonesia by the Netherlands (November, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] An assessment of trade in bear bile and gall bladder in Viet Nam (November, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Reduced To Skin And Bones Re-Examined: Full Analysis – Updated with information through 2015. (November, 2016)

[EIA] Time for Action: End the criminality and corruption fuelling wildlife crime (November, 2016)

[EIA] Time for Action: End the criminality and corruption fuelling wildlife crime – Country Profiles (November, 2016)

[CITES] Report on the Elephant Trade Information System (ETIS) (October, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Bulletin 28 No. 2: Widllife DNA Forensics; Reducing Demand for Illegal Wildlife Products; Enhancing Plant Trade Regulation; Straw-Headed Bulbuls in Singapore (October, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] An Ounce of Prevention: Snow leopard crime revisited (October, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] A Rapid Assessment of US Ivory Markets (October, 2016)

[WPSI] CITES CoP17 – WPSI Poaching & Mortality Stats for Asian Big Cats (September, 2016)

[WPSI] CITES CoP17 – WPSI Poaching & Mortality Stats for Other Key Species (September, 2016)

[WPSI] WPSI Activities in the Sunderbans (September, 2016)

[EIA] The Dirty Secrets of Japan’s Illegal Ivory Trade (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] In Transition: Bangkok’s ivory market (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Reduced to Skin and Bones Re-examined (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Observations of the illegal pangolin trade in Lao PDR (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Observations of the Helmeted Hornbill trade in Lao PDR (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] An overview of pangolin trade in China (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Malaysia’s invisible ivory channel: An assessment of ivory seizures involving Malaysia from January 2003-May 2014 (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] A Rapid Assessment of US Physical Ivory Markets (September, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] A rapid survey of UK ivory markets (August, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Indonesia’s Bird Markets: In the market for extinction: eastern and central Java (August, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Menjual Kepunahan – Perdagangan Burung di Jawa Timur dan Jawa Bagian Tengah (August, 2016)

[TRAFFIC/IUCN] Illegal Otter Trade: An Analysis of Seizures in Selected Asian Countries (1980-2015) (July, 2016)

[TGIATOC] Beyond Borders: Crime, conservation and criminal networks in the illicit rhino horn trade (July, 2016) – Part 2. Also see “Tipping Point.”

[TGIATOC] Tipping Point: Transnational organised crime and the ‘war’ on poaching (July, 2016) – Part 1. Also see “Beyond Borders.”

[UNEP] The Rise of Environmental Crime: A UNEP-INTERPOL Rapid Response Assessment – Alternate link. (June, 2016)

[GTI] Background Document – Global Wild Tiger Population Status (April, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Bulletin 28 No. 1: Pangolin Trade; Synthetic Wildlife Substitutes; China’s Botanicals Market; Lizards: Spiny-tailed and Sungazers (April, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Setting Suns: the Historical Decline of Ivory and Rhino Horn Markets in Japan (April, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Humphead (Napoleon) Wrasse Cheilinus undulatus trade into and through Hong Kong (March, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Beyond Enforcement: Involving Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities in Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade (February, 2016)

[TRAFFIC] Au-delà de l’application de la loi: Inclusion des peuples autochtones et des communautés locales dans la lutte contre le commerce illégal d’espèces sauvages (February, 2016)

[EIA] Ending Trade in Tiger Parts and Products (January, 2016)

[EIA] Dual Extinction: The illegal trade in the endangered totoaba and its impact on the critically endangered vaquita (January, 2016)

[EIA] 双重灭绝: 濒危加利福尼亚湾石首鱼的非法贸易及其对极度濒危小头鼠海豚的影响 (January, 2016)

[NTNC] National Trust for Nature Conservation Regulation 2041 (Nepali version) (December, 2015)

[EAL/ELI] Blending Ivory: China’s Old Loopholes, New Hopes – Summary in English (December, 2015)

[EU/EC] Illegal Wildlife Trade: Strengthening cooperation with business sectors against illegal trade in wildlife (November, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Bulletin 27 No. 2: Ivory and Terror; Pangolin Seizures Data Indonesia; Asian Songbirds in Crisis; Sustainability in the TCM Sector in China (October, 2015)

[WWF] Fragile Connections: Snow leopards, people, water and the global climate (October, 2015)

[WWF] Will Current Conservation Responses Save the Critically Endangered Sumatran Rhinoceros? (September, 2015)

[UNODC] Wildlife and Forest Crime Analytic Toolkit: Report of UNODC Mission to Viet Nam (September, 2015) – Pangolin scales, elephant ivory, and rhino horn.

[TRAFFIC] Conservation Strategy for South-East Asian Songbirds in Trade (September, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] In the Market for Extinction: An inventory of Jakarta’s bird markets – Summary in Indonesian. (September, 2015)

[WWF] The Hard Truth: How Hong Kong’s Ivory Trade is Fueling Africa’s Elephant Poaching Crisis (September, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Bones of Contention: An assessment of the South African trade in African Lion bones and other body parts (July, 2015)

[EAL/ELI] Pushing Ivory Out of Africa – A Case Study (July, 2015)

[EU] EU Action Plan Against Wildlife Trafficking (July, 2015)

[NTNC] Vulture Conservation Action Plan for Nepal (2015-2019) (June, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] A Review of Online Ivory Trade in Japan (June, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Hard to Bear: An assessment of trade in bear bile and gall bladder in Malaysia (May, 2015)

[EAL/ELI] Mombasa Report: A Liability for Africa – On the trafficking of ivory through Kenya’s port. (May, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Bulletin 27 No. 1: Crocodile Lizards and Slow Lorises in Thailand and Pangolin Trade in India (April, 2015)

[LATF] Operation Cobra II Evaluation Form (April, 2015)

[UNEP] Organized Crime in Wildlife, Gold and Timber, Worth Over One Billion USD, Further Fuels Conflict in Eastern DR Congo (April, 2015)

[EAL/ELI] Africa’s White Gold of Jihad: al-Shabaab and Conflict Ivory (April, 2015)

[Small Arms Survey] In the Line of Fire – Elephant and Rhino Poaching in Africa (April, 2015)

[EIA] High Profit/Low Risk: Reversing the wildlife crime equation (March, 2015)

[EIA] Sin City: Illegal wildlife trade in Laos’ special Economic Zone (March, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Breaking the Ice: International trade in Narwhals, in the context of a changing Arctic (March, 2015)

[ANGONET] State of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Wildlife Sector: A case study of villages within and neighbouring wildlife protected areas in northern Tanzania (March, 2015)

[WA] Ivory Demand in China 2012-2014 (March, 2015)

[WA] Rhino Horn Demand in China 2012-2014 (March, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Moving targets: Tracking online sales of illegal wildlife products in China (March, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Breaking the Ice: International Trade in Narwhals in Contex of Changing Arctic (2015)

[RSC] Veterinary agents and poisons threaten avian scavengers in African and Europe (November, 2014)

[IFAW] Wanted: Dead or Alive – Exposing the Online Wildlife Trade (November, 2014)

[EIA] Vanishing Point – Criminality, Corruption and the Devastation of Tanzania’s Elephants (November, 2014)

[BF] Out of Africa: Mapping the Global Trade in Illicit Elephant Ivory (October, 2014)

[IFAW] Bidding Against Survival – The Elephant Poaching Crisis and the Role of Auctions in the U.S. Ivory Market (August, 2014)

[TRAFFIC] Brought to Bear: An Analysis of Seizures Across Asia (2000-2011). (August, 2014)

[KWS] Aerial Total Count of Elephants and Buffaloes in the Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem (August, 2014)

[EIA] Caged Assets: Tiger Farming and Trade (July, 2014)

[CITES] Elephant Conservation, Illegal Killing and Ivory Trade (July, 2014)

[IUCN] Scaling Up Pangolin Conservation (July, 2014)

[EAW] Lifting the Siege: Securing Kenya’s Wildlife (June, 2014)

[IFAW] Click to delete – Endangered wildlife for sale in New Zealand (May, 2014)

[IFAW] Click to delete – Australian websites selling endangered wildlife (May, 2014)

[IFAW] A case for stepping up CITES enforcement in the EU (April, 2014)

[BF] Ivory’s Curse: The Militarization & Professionalization of Poaching in Africa (April, 2014)

[IFAW] U.S. Ivory Trade: Can a crackdown on trafficking save the last titan? (March, 2014)

[CITES] Operation Cobra II (February, 2014)

[EIA] In Cold Blood – Combating organised wildlife crime – Examines international wildlife crimes and actions taken to stem them. (February, 2014)

[EIA] Briefing on the manufacture of tiger bone wine in China (January, 2014)

[IFAW] Horn of Contention: A review of literature on the economics of trade in rhino horn (January, 2014)

[TRAFFIC] Hauling Out: International Trade and Management of Walrus (2014)

[CIFOR] Bushmeat in the tri-frontier region of Brazil, Peru and Colombia: Demise or persistence? (2014)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2013 – 2014 (2014)

[WA] WildAid Annual Report (2013)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2013)

[IUCN] Status of African elephant populations and levels of illegal killing and the illegal trade in ivory. (December, 2013)

[IUCN] Status of Elephants in Botswana. (December, 2013)

[TRAFFIC] Falling demand for ivory in Cambodia and Singapore? (November, 2013)

[UNEP] Stolen Apes: The Illicit Trade in Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Bonobos and Orangutans (July, 2013)

[IFAW] Impact evaluation on ivory trade in China (July, 2013)

[EnoughProject] Kony’s Ivory: How Elephant Poaching in Congo Helps Support the Lord’s Resistance Army (June, 2013)

[IFAW] Criminal Nature: The Global Security Implications of the Illegal Wildlife Trade – 2013 (June, 2013)

[EIA] Environmental Crime: A Threat to our Future (May, 2013)

[EIA] Stop Stimulating Demand – Briefing which suggests that ivory trade discussions will increase demand and poaching. (March, 2013)

[EIA] Vietnam’s Illegal Rhino Horn Trade: Undermining the Effectiveness of CITES (March, 2013)

[IUCN/TRAFFIC] African and Asian Rhinoceroses – Status, Conservation and Trade (March, 2013)

[WWF/TRAFFIC] Reduced to Skin and Bones Revisited: Updated Tiger Seizures from 12 Range Countries (2000-2012) (March, 2013)

[WWF/TRAFFIC] 非法老虎贸易再探 (March, 2013)

[CERU] Elephants – A Way Forward (March, 2013)

[CITES] Operation Cobra I (February, 2013)

[EIA] Hidden in Plain Sight: China’s Clandestine Tiger Trade (February, 2013)

[EIA] 隐藏在明处  中国的秘密老虎贸易 (February, 2013)

[IFAW] Project Web: An investigation into the ivory trade over the internet within the European Union (February, 2013)

[IFAW] The $200 Million Question: How much does trophy hunting contribute to African communities? (February, 2013)

[IFAW] Elephants and Ivory (February, 2013)

[CITES/IUCN/TRAFFIC] Elephants in the Dust – Lengthy report on the latest elephant population and poaching status based on data gathered from MIKE sites. Also includes reflections on information from the ETIS program related to ivory seizures and recovery. (2013)

[TRAFFIC] Developpement D’un Systeme de Gestion des Stocks D’Ivoire au Gabon (2013)

[TRAFFIC] TRAFFIC’s Engagement in the Fight Against Illegal Trade in Elephant Ivory (2013)

[TRAFFIC] African Rhinos: The Facts (2013)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2012 – 2013 (2013)

[WA] WildAid Annual Report (2012)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2012)

[EIA] Appetite for Destruction: China’s Trade in Illegal Timber (November, 2012)

[EIA] 毁灭的欲望  中国的非法木材贸易 (November, 2012)

[EIA] Briefing on Snow Leopards in Illegal Trade – Asia’s Forgotten Cats (October, 2012)

[Panthera/WCS] Illegal hunting & the bushmeat trade in savanna Africa: Drivers, impacts & solutions to address the problem (October, 2012)

[AAsia] End Bear Bile Farming (October, 2012)

[IFAW] Protecting Bears Around the World – Fact Sheet (August, 2012)

[FWS] Facts about Rhino Horn (September, 2012)

[TRAFFIC] Survey Highlights Lao PDR’s Dark Trade in Ivory (July, 2012)

[IFAW] Killing with Keystrokes 2.0: IFAW’s investigation into the European online ivory trade (July, 2012)

[TRAFFIC] Behavior Change We Can Believe In: Towards A Global Demand Reduction Strategy for Tigers (May, 2012)

[TRAFFIC] Behavior Change We Can Believe In: Towards A Global Demand Reduction Strategy for Tigers – Russian version. (May, 2012)

[EIA] Blood Ivory: Exposing the myth of a regulated market (March, 2012)

[EIA] Tiger Bone Wine Auctions in China (February, 2012)

[TRAFFIC] Icon on Ice: International Trade and Management of Polar Bears (2012)

[TRAFFIC] The South Africa-Vietnam Rhino Horn Trade Nexus (2012)

[TRAFFIC] Illuminating the Blind Spot: Study on Illegal Trade in Leopard Parts in India (2001-2010) (2012)

[NatSCA] The Horns of a Dilemma: The Impact of the Illicit Trade in Rhino Horn (2012)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2011 – 2012 (2012)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2011)

[EIA] Key features of the Asian Big Cat (ABC) skin and bone trade in China in 2005-2011 (November, 2011)

[EIA/WPSI] Enforcement and Asian big cats (August, 2011)

[EIA] Leopards losing out at CITES as Parties let reporting slide (August, 2011)

[EIA] Briefing Document for the 61st Meeting of the CITES Standing Committee: Elephants (August, 2011)

[IUCN] Proceedings of the Asian Rhino Specialist Group Meeting, Kasiranga National Park, India 2010 (May, 2011)

[TRAFFIC] DRCongo Elaboration de la Strategie et du Plan D’action National Surla «Viande de Brousse (2011)

[TRAFFIC] Pills Powders Vials and Flakes: Bear Bile Trade in Asia (2011)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2010 – 2011 (2011)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2010)

[EIA] Enforcement Not Extinction (Zero Tolerance on Tiger Trade) – Report on methods that immediately need to be implemented to save wild tigers. (November, 2010)

[GTI] Competing Demands: Understanding and Addressing the Socio-economic Forces that Work for and against Tiger Conservation (April, 2010)

[GTI/TRAFFIC] Tiger Trade and Trafficking (April, 2010)

[KEF] Fact Sheet 04: Proposals on the African Elephant for CITES CoP15 (January, 2010)

[KEF] Fact Sheet 03: CITES and the Ivory Trade (January, 2010)

[KEF] Fact Sheet 02: Elephant Poaching and the Ivory Trade (January, 2010)

[KEF] Fact Sheet 01: The African Elephant Coalition  – Please see this page on ElephantVoices for the most recent (2013) versions. (January, 2010)

[EV] Elephants, Ivory, and Trade: Trade decisions made by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species must place science over politics. Science (327) 1331-1332. (2010)

[EV] Letters to Science June 2010 regarding consequences of legal ivory trade (2010)

[TAWIRI/IUCN] Tanzania Elephant Management Plan 2010-2015 (2010)

[EIA] Open Season – Tanzania and Zambia seek to sell ivory stockpiles to Asian nations. (2010)

[TRAFFIC] Saiga Antelope Trade: Global Trends with Focus on South-east Asia (2010)

[TRAFFIC] Preliminary Assessment of Sunda Pangolin Trade in Sabah (2010)

[TRAFFIC] Reduced to Skin and Bones: Analysis of Tiger Seizures from 11 Range Countries (2010)

[TRAFFIC] The Big Cat Trade in Myanmar and Thailand (2010)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2009 – 2010 (2010)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2009)

[IUCN/TRAFFIC] African and Asian Rhinoceroses – Status, Conservation and Trade (November, 2009)

[IUCN] Report On The Meeting For Conservation of Sumatran and Javan Rhino in South East Asia 2009 (IUCN/SSC AsRSG) (October, 2009)

[EIA] A Deadly Game Of Cat And Mouse – China’s role in the tiger trade. (October, 2009)

[CERU] Elephants: Facts & Fables (October, 2009)

[EIA] Tiger Farming Economics Don’t Add Up (August, 2009)

[ConsBio] Bushmeat Supply and Consumption in a Tropical Logging Concession in Northern CongoConservation Biology, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1597-1608 (February, 2009)

[IUCN] Guidelines for the in situ re-introduction and translocation of African and Asian rhinoceros (February, 2009)

[AsESG/IUCN] The Human-Elephant Conflict: A Review of Current Status and Mitigation Methods (2009)

[TRAFFIC] An Assessment of Trade in Gibbons and Orang-utans in Sumatra, Indonesia (2009)

[TRAFFIC] The Elephant and Ivory Trade in Thailand (2009)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2008 – 2009 (2009)

[IFAW] Killing with Keystrokes: An Investigation of the Illegal Wildlife Trade on the World Wide Web (October, 2008)

[EIA] Skin Deep – Briefing on the sale of big cat skins in China. (July, 2008)

[KWS] Kenya Wildlife Service Annual Report (2008)

[IFAW] Criminal Nature: The Global Security Implications of the Illegal Wildlife Trade – 2008 (2008)

[TRAFFIC] Paper Tigers: The Role of the US Captive Tiger Population in Trade in Tiger Parts (2008)

[TRAFFIC] Proceedings of Workshop on Trade and Conservation of Pangolins Native to South and Southeast Asia (2008)

[TRAFFIC] The Wild Cat Trade in Myanmar (2008)

[TRAFFIC] Elephant and Ivory Trade in Myanmar (2008)

[TRAFFIC] An Assessment of Illegal Ivory Trade in Vietnam (2008)

[TRAFFIC] Paper Tigers: The Role of the US Captive Tiger Population in Trade in Tiger Parts (2008)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2007 – 2008 (2008)

[TRAFFIC] Study on the Effectiveness of the EC Wildlife Trade Regulations  (December, 2007)

[CrisisGroup] Congo: Bringing Peace to North Kivu – An in-depth report on the rebel militias operating in Democratic Republic of Congo and the security of the country’s human and wildlife populations from 2003-2006. (October, 2007)

[EIA] Availability of Tiger Bone Wine at Wild Animal Parks in China (August, 2007)

[IFAW] Trading Tusks: An Investigation into Elephant Management and Ivory Trade in Southern Africa (May, 2007)

[IFAW] Le commerce des défenses Une enquête sur la gestion des éléphants et le commerce de l’ivoire en Afrique Australe (May, 2007)

[IFAW] Fatal Flaw: The inadequacies of Japan’s ivory trade controls (April, 2007)

[AsRSG/IUCN] Report on the Regional Meeting for India and Nepal IUCN/SSC Asian Rhino Specialist Group (March, 2007)

[IUCN] Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation: A Training Course for Community-Based Approaches in Africa (March, 2007)

[IUCN] African Elephant Status Report 2007 (Feb, 2007)

[IUCN/TRAFFIC] African and Asian Rhinoceroses – Status, Conservation and Trade (January, 2007)

[TRAFFIC/WWF] Taming the Tiger Trade (2007)

[TRAFFIC] Tiger Trade Revisited in Sumatra, Indonesia (2007)

[TRAFFIC] Taming the Tiger Trade: China’s Markets for Wild and Captive Tiger Prodcts Since the 1993 Ban (2007)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2006 – 2007 (2007)

[EIA] Skinning The Cat – Report on the trade of big cat skins. (September, 2006)

[IFAW] Ivory Market in China – China Ivory Trade Survey Report (June, 2006)

[TRAFFIC] No Peace for Elephants: Unregulated Domestic Ivory Markets in Angola and Mozambique (2006)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2005 – 2006 (2006)

[WPSI] Shahtoosh: The Illegal Trade (2006)

[TRAFFIC] Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Trade in Bear Parts (2006)

[TRAFFIC] No Oasis: The Egyptian Ivory Trade in 2005 (June, 2005)

[WPSI] WPSI-Ranthambore Tiger Census (May, 2005) – Also spelled Ranthambhore.

[FWS] Distinguishing Real vs Fake Tiger Penises (March, 2005)

[EIA] Dead End – Briefing on a game-proof fence around Botswana’s Makgadikgadi National Park. (February, 2005)

[TRAFFIC] Rhino Horn Stockpile Management: Minimum Standards and Best Practices from East and Southern Africa (2005)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2004 – 2005 (2005)

[EIA] The Tiger Skin Trail – Report on the source and destination countries involved in the tiger skin trade. (October, 2004)

[EIA] The Enforcement Imperative – Report on how the implementation and strengthening of ivory-ban enforcement needs to be performed. (October, 2004)

[IW] The Last Stronghold: Cheetah in Iran (2004)

[TRAFFIC] Tackling the Ivories: The Status of US Trade in Elephant and Hippo Ivory (2004)

[TRAFFIC] Against the Grain: Trade in Musk Deer Products in Singapore and Malaysia (2004)

[TRAFFIC] No License to Kill: Population and Harvest of Musk Deer and Trade in Russia and Mongolia (2004)

[TRAFFIC] Nowhere to Hide: The Trade in Sumatran Tiger (2004)

[SANParks] SANParks Annual Report 2003 – 2004 (2004)

[IUCN] African Elephant Status Report 2002 (Oct, 2003)

[STE] The Ivory Markets of East Asia (March, 2003)

[EIA] Undermined: Destruction of Tiger Habitat in India (March, 2003)

[TRAFFIC] Fading Footprints: The Killing and Trade of Snow Leopards (2003)

[TRAFFIC] More Ivory than Elephants: Domestic Ivory Markets in Three West African Countries (2003)

[TRAFFIC] An Assessment of the Domestic Ivory Carving Industry and Trade Controls in India (2003)

[EIA] Back in Business – Report on the renewed interest in ivory in Asia. (October, 2002)

[TRAFFIC] The World’s Unregulated Domestic Ivory Markets (October, 2002)

[TRAFFIC] Conservation of Tigers and Other Asian Big Cats (October, 2002)

[TRAFFIC] Musk Market Survey Report: Endangered Species Scientific Convention of the PRC (March, 2002)

[TRAFFIC] China’s Management of Trade in Elephant Products (2002)

[TRAFFIC] An Assessment of Illegal Trade in Elephant Products in Vietnam (2002)

[TRAFFIC] An Investigation of Ivory Market in Taiwan (2002)

[TRAFFIC] Japan’s Trade in Ivory after the Tenth CoP to CITES (2002)

[TRAFFIC] The Trade of Elephant Products in Myanmar (2002)

[EIA] Thailand’s Tiger Economy (June, 2001)

[TRAFFIC] Musk Deer Farming as Conservation Tool in China (2001)

[EIA] Lethal Experiment – How CITES-approved ivory sale increased elephant poaching. (April, 2000)

[TRAFFIC] Trade in Musk and Bear Bile in India (2000)

[CITES] South African Population of the African Elephant (2000?)

[TRAFFIC] On the Scent: Conserving Musk Deer – Uses of Musk and Europes Role in Trade (1999)

[TRAFFIC] A Review of United States Bear Trade Laws (1999)

[IUCN] African Rhino: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (1999)

[WPSI] Signed and Sealed: The Fate of the Asian Elephant (1998/1999)

[TRAFFIC] Monitoring of Trade in Elephant Products and Illegal Killing of Elephants: Nairobi, Kenya December 1997 (1998)

[TRAFFIC] While Supplies last: The Sale of Tiger and Endangered Species Medicines in North America ’96-97 (January, 1998)

[TRAFFIC] Overview of World Trade in Cervid Antler in United States and Canada (August, 1997)

[TRAFFIC] Rhino Progress: The Response to CITES Conf 9.14 (June, 1997)

[TRAFFIC] Rhino Horn and Tiger Bone in China: An Investigation of Trade Since 1993 (May, 1997)

[TRAFFIC] Still in Business: The Ivory Trade in Asia 7 Years After CITES Ban (April, 1997)

[TRAFFIC] Tiger Progress: The Response to CITES Conf 9.13 (1997)

[IUCN] Asian Rhinos – Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (1997)

[WPSI] A God in Distress: Threats of Poaching and the Ivory Trade to the Asian Elephant (1997)

[WPSI] Fashioned for Extinction: An Exposé of the Shahtoosh Trade (1997)

[TRAFFIC/CITES] On a Knife’s Edge – The Rhinoceros Horn Trade in Yemen (1997)

[IUCN] The Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (1996)

[TRAFFIC] Under Siege: Poaching and Protection of Greater One-horned Rhino in India (1996)

[TRAFFIC] The Bear Facts: East Asian Market for Bear Gall Bladder (1995)

[TRAFFIC] Status, Management, and Commercialization of the American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) (1995)

[TRAFFIC] Killed For A Cure: A Review of the Worldwide Trade in Tiger Bone (1994)

[TRAFFIC] The World Trade in Rhino Horn (September, 1992)

[TRAFFIC] Identification Guide for Ivory and Substitutes (1992)

[TRAFFIC] The Decline of the Black Rhino in Zimbabwe (1992)

[TRAFFIC] The Horns of a Dilemma: The Market for Rhino Horn in Taiwan (1992)

[TRAFFIC] The Asian Trade in Bears and Bear Parts (1991)

[TRAFFIC] Cultural Significance of Pacific Fruit Bats Pteropus to Chamorro People of Guam (1991)

[IUCN] The Asian Elephant: An Action Plan for its Conservation (1990)

[EIA] A System of Extinction: The African Elephant Disaster (September, 1989)

[TRAFFIC] Non-human Primates in Netherlands: Survey of Import and Export, Ownership, and Use (1988)

[TRAFFIC] International Primate Trade: Legislation, Trade, and Captive Breeding (1984)

[] Rhinoceros unicornis (Greater One-horned Rhino) (December, 1983)

Publications on Ocean Reefs, Fisheries & Hunting of Whales, Dolphins, Porpoises, and Seals

This section houses links to many publications related to sea life consumption in all forms, legal and illegal. Topics include ocean reef health, over-fishing, freshwater and saltwater fish consumption, illegal and “scientific” cetacean hunting, and seal hunting.

Some publications have English versions as well as a version translated into another language. These translated versions are listed after the applicable English version for ease of access. For a full list of publications by please view their resources page.

[EIA] Five Years of Failure: A review of the effectiveness of the US Government recovery plan for critically endangered Cook Inlet beluga whales (January, 2022)

[EIA] Nothing Fishy About It – IMO Briefing (April, 2020)

[EIA] CITES’ Last Chance: Stop the illegal totoaba trade to save the vaquita (August, 2019)

[TRAFFIC] Corruption and wildlife crime: A focus on caviar trade (February, 2019)

[TRAFFIC] Seeing Red: Precious coral trade in East Asia (September, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Empty Shells: An assessment of abalone poaching and trade in southern Africa (September, 2018)

[EIA] Commercial Whaling: Unsustainable, Inhumane, Unnecessary (August, 2018)

[EIA] La Chasse à la Baleine: Insoutenable, Inhumain, Inutile – Website only; no PDF report. (August, 2018)

[AWI] Small Cetaceans, Big Problems: A global review of the impacts of hunting on small whales, dolphins and porpoises (August, 2018)

[TRAFFIC] Understanding the Global Caviar Market (July, 2018)

[EIA] Facing Extinction: Survival of the Vaquita Depends on Eliminating the Illegal Trade in Totoaba (November, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] The Southern Bluefin Tuna market in China (August, 2017)

[EIA] Charting the Future for Cetaceans and Polar Shipping (June, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] The Shark and Ray Trade in Singapore (May, 2017)

[WWF] Fishing for Proteins: How marine fisheries impact on global food security up to 2050. A global prognosis (Jan, 2017)

[TRAFFIC] Shark fin and mobulid ray gill plate trade in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan (November, 2016)

[EIA] Collateral Damage: How illegal trade in totoaba swim bladders is driving vaquita to extinction (September, 2016)

[EIA] 间接伤害: 加利福尼亚湾石首鱼鱼鳔 非法贸易正如何导致小头 鼠海豚走向灭绝 (September, 2016)

[EIA] Daño Colateral: Cómo el comercio ilegal de vejigas natatorias de la totoaba está llevando a la vaquita a la extinción (September, 2016)

[WWF] Illegal Fishing: Which fish species are at highest risk from illegal and unreported fishing? (October, 2015)

[TRAFFIC] Eel Market Dynamics: an analysis of Anguilla production, trade and consumption in East Asia (July 2015)

[WWF] Smart Investments in Ocean Health (June, 2015)

[WWF] Reviving the Oceans Economy: The Case for Action2015 (April, 2015)

[TGIATOC] The Illegal Fishing and Organized Crime Nexus: Illega Fishing As Transnational Organized Crime (April, 2015)

[EIA] Slayed in Iceland: The commercial hunting and international trade in endangered fin whales (September, 2014)

[WA] Evidence of Declines in Shark Fin Demand – China (August, 2014)

[WA] The Continuing Threat to Manta and Mobula Rays – 2013-14 Market Surveys, Guangzhou, China (June, 2014)

[WA] Palau: Northen Reef Assessment (May, 2014)

[EIA] Illegal drift netting in the Mediterranean (May, 2014)

[EIA] Toxic Catch: Japan’s unsustainable and irresponsible whale, dolphin and porpoise hunts (October, 2013)

[IFAW] The Economics of the Japanese Whaling Industry: A collapsing industry burdens taxpayers (February, 2013)

[IFAW] Grey Seals in Atlantic Canada: to Cull or Not to Cull? (October, 2012)

[IFAW] Defending Seals (October, 2012)

[IFAW] South Atlantic Whale Sanctuary: Securing a future for whales through cooperation, research and non-consumptive use (June, 2012)

[IFAW] Economics of Canada’s Commercial Seal Hunt 2011 update (May, 2012)

[EIA] Breaking Ranks: Denmark Goes It Alone on Whaling Policy (May, 2012)

[WWF] A Market Price Valuation Of Tuna Resources In The Western Indian Ocean – An Indicative Regional & Country/Eez Perspective (February, 2012)

[IFAW] Survey for harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) of the Dogger Bank and southern North Sea (November, 2011)

[EIA] Renegade Whaling – Iceland’s and Japan’s illegal whale trade. (July, 2011)

[WA] The End of the Line? – Global Threats to Sharks (November, 2010)

[WA] Bleeding the oceans dry? – The overfishing and decline of global sharks stocks (October, 2009)

[EIA] Poisonous Policies – Report detailing Japan’s policies that support the sale of polluted whale and dolphin products. (June, 2008)

[EIA] 有害政策 – 汚染されたクジラ・イルカ 由来食品の販売を禁止しない日本 (June, 2008)

[EIA] Stop The Dall’s Disaster – Facts on the Japanese hunt of Dall porpoises. (June, 2006)

[IFAW] Report of the International Panel of Independent Legal Exports On: Special Permit (“Scientific”) Whaling Under International Law (May, 2006)

[EIA] Oceans Under Siege – The impacts of whale, porpoise, and dolphin hunting. (May, 2005)

[EIA] Global Chemical Pollution and the Hunting of Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises (July, 2004)

[EIA] Mercury Rising – Report on polluted meat from whales, porpoises, and dolphins sold in Japan. (June, 2003)

[EIA] The Facts Behind Japan’s Whale, Dolphin and Porpoise Hunting (May, 2002)

[EIA] Towards Extinction – Report on Japanese exploitation of porpoises and dolphins. (June, 2000)

Publications on Legally and Illegally Operating Businesses, Organized Crime, & Government Corruption

[EIA] State of Corruption – The top-level conspiracy behind the global trade in Myanmar’s stolen teak (February, 2019)

[TRAFFIC] Corruption and wildlife crime: A focus on caviar trade (February, 2019)

[EIA] Vietnam in Violation: Action required on fake CITES permits for rosewood trade (September, 2018)

[TGIATOC] Diplomats and Deceit – North Korea’s Criminal Activities in Africa (October, 2017)

[GMF/TGIATOC] Atlantic Currents and their Illicit Undertow: Fragile States and their Transnational Security Implications (May, 2016) – Related documents are available here.

[EIA] The Role of Corruption in Wildlife and Forest Crime (November, 2015)

[EIA] Who Watches the Watchmen? Auditors and the Breakdown of Oversight in the RSPO (November, 2015)

[EIA] Qui Garde Les Gardiens? Les auditeurs et la crise de la surveillance au sein de la RSPO (November, 2015)

[EIA] ¿Quién Vigila a Los Vigilantes? Auditores y el deterioro de la supervisión al interior de la RSPO (November, 2015)

[EIA] Siapa Yang Mengawasi Para Pengawas? Para auditor dan kegagalan pengawasan dalam RSPO (November, 2015)

[TGIATOC] Tightening the Net: Toward a Global Legal Framework on Transnational Organized Environmental Crime (April, 2015)

[IFAW] ELEPHANT vs MOUSE – An investigation of the Ivory Trade on Craigslist (April, 2015)

[EIA] Blood e-Commerce: Rakuten’s profits from the slaughter of elephants and whales (March, 2014)

[EIA] Banking on Extinction – Briefing about HSBC’s loans to groups are exploiting natural resources in an environmentally unsustainable manner and which threatens the survival of many rainforest species. (November, 2013)

[EIA] Google and the promotion of whale and elephant product sales in Japan (March, 2013)

[EIA] Testing the Law – Report on Indonesian palm oil companies operating illegally. (July, 2012)

[EIA] Menguji Hukum – Report on Indonesian palm oil companies operating illegally. (July, 2012)

[EIA] Killing for Commerce – A report on Yahoo!’s role in whale product sales. (June, 2012)

[EIA] The Laundering Machine – A report on US companies that illegally import wood from the Peruvian Amazon. (April, 2012)

[EIA]’s Unpalatable Profits – A report on cetacean food products sold on (February, 2012)

[WA/CI] An Analysis of the Law Enforcement Chain in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape – Examines Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador. (April, 2010)

[WA/CI] Análisis de la Cadena de Aplicación de la Ley en el Paisaje Marino del Pacífico Este Tropical – Examines Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador. (April, 2010)

[EIA] Buyer Beware – A report on the origins of merbau wood flooring sold in the UK. (October, 2008)

[EIA] Environmental Crime – A report documenting the impact of organized environmental crimes. (October, 2008)

[EIA] Borderlines – Report on corruption within Indonesia’s judicial system which fails to prosecute illegal logging. (March, 2008)

[EIA] The Gorton’s Family Whale Killing Business – A UK business’s ties to Japanese whale hunting. (December, 2005)

[EIA] Whale*Mart – Report on Wal-Mart’s ties to Japanese whale and dolphin hunting. (February, 2004)

[EIA] Above The Law – Details on the corruption of Indonesian law enforcement and government officials who permit illegal logging in national parks. (January, 2003)

[EIA] The Cost of Convenience – Report into the relationship between 7-Eleven, its Japanese majority share holder Ito-Yokado, and Japan’s whale and dolphin hunting. (May, 2002)

Wildlife Trade Detection & Enforcement

Publications relating to proposed and implemented programs relating to enforcement measures as well as detection of trafficked wildlife products.

[ENV] Wildlife Crime Bulletin Issue 2 (October, 2020) – Vietnam.

[ENV] Prosecution Review: Wildlife Crime in Vietnam 2015-2020 (August, 2020)

[ENV] Summary of Macaque Crime in Vietnam (July, 2020)

[TGIATOC] World Atlas of Illicit Flows (September, 2018)

[TGIATOC] The role of online platforms in the illegal orchid trade (September, 2018) – From Southeast Asia.

[GMF/TGIATOC] Atlantic Currents and their Illicit Undertow: Fragile States and their Transnational Security Implications (May, 2016) – Related documents are available here.

[TGIATOC] Tightening the Net: Toward a Global Legal Framework on Transnational Organized Environmental Crime (April, 2015)

[TGIATOC] The Illegal Fishing and Organized Crime Nexus: Illega Fishing As Transnational Organized Crime (April, 2015)

[WD] Scoping study on the prosecution of wildlife related crimes in Kenyan courts January 2008 to June 2013Click here for the PDF. (January, 2014)

[TRAFFIC] Hand Book on Wildlife Law Enforcement in India (2010)

[TRAFFIC] The First Regional Workshop on the South Asia Wildlife Trade Initiative, 31st January-1st February 2008 Kathmandu, Nepal (February, 2008)

[TRAFFIC] EU-TWIX: An internet tool to assist the EU in the fight against wildlife trade crime (May, 2007)

[TRAFFIC] Le commerce illégal et la vente d’espèces CITES en Belgique: Ivoire d’éléphant et autres spécimens (May, 2007)

[TRAFFIC] Enforcement of Wildlife Trade Controls in EU Member States: Country Profiles (2006)

[TRAFFIC] Proceedings of the International Expert Workshop on Wildlife Detector Dogs (2006)

[TRAFFIC] By Hook or by Crook: A reference manual on illegal wildlife trade and prosecutions in the United Kingdom (1998)

[TRAFFIC] The feasibility of using canines to detect wildlife contraband (1997)

[TRAFFIC] The implementation and enforcement of CITES in the European Union (January, 1995)

[TRAFFIC] Wildlife Trade: A handbook for enforcement staff (August 1994)

Publications on Wildlife Behavior, Abilities, Phenomena, and the Study of Wildlife

For the most up-to-date list of publications with authors from Elephant Voices please visit their publication page.

[IUCN] African Forest and Savannah Elephants Treated as Separate Species (February, 2021)

[EV] Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana). (2013)

[EV] Association patterns of African elephants in all-male groups: the role of age and genetic relatedness. Animal Behaviour (2011)

[EV] Leadership in elephants: the adaptive value of age. (March 2011)

[EV] Why Do African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) Simulate Oestrus? An Analysis of Longitudinal Data. PLoS ONE (2010)

[EV] Do elephants show Empathy? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 15, No. 10-11, pp. 204-25. (2008)

[EV] Elephant sociality and complexity: The scientific evidence. In: Elephants and Ethics: Toward a morality of Co-existence. C. Wemmer & K. Christen (Eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press. (2008)

[EV] Fine-scaled population genetic structure in a fission-fusion society. Molecular Ecology 17: 2666-2679. (2008)

[EV] Mind and Movement: Meeting the Interests of Elephants. In: An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well Being of Elephants in Captivity. (2008)

[EV] Why study elephant cognition? Current Biology, Vol 18, No 13, R544-546. (2008)

[EV] Age, musth and paternity success in wild male African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Animal Behaviour, 74: 287-296 (2007)

[EV] Behavioural inbreeding avoidance in wild African elephants. Molecular Ecology. (2007)

[EV] African elephants have expectations about locations of out-of-sight family members. Biology Letters. (2007)

[EV] Elephants classify human ethnic groups by odour and garment colour. Current Biology. (2007)

[EV] Wild African elephants discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecific seismic alarm calls. (2007)

[EV] Elephant Breakdown. Social trauma: Early trauma and social disruption can affect the physiology, behaviour and culture of animals and humans over generations. Nature, 433: 807. (2005)

[EV] Elephants are capable of vocal learning. Nature, 434: 455-456. (2005)

[EV] The Ethical Management of Elephants and the Value of Long-Term Field Research. AAVS 63: 2-5 (2005)

[EV] The visual, tactile & acoustic signals of play in African savannah elephants. (2004)

[EV] Proceedings of the Symposium on Human Elephant Relationships and Conflicts, Sri Lanka, September 2003. Biodiversity & Elephant Conservation Trust, Colombo. Pages 44-50. (2004)

[EV] Mate guarding, reproductive success and female choice in African elephants. Anim. Behav., 1989, 37, 842-849. Biology Department, Princeton University, New Jersey. (1989)

[EV] Announcing intent: the aggressive state of musth in African elephants. Anim. Behav., 1989, 37, 140-152. Biology Department, Princeton University, New Jersey. (1989)

[EV] Rutting behavior in African Elephants: The phenomenon of musth. Behaviour. 102: 283-316. (1987)

[EV] Musth and male-male competition in the African elephant. By Joyce Poole, PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 1982.